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1
Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) and free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin ( beta-hCG ) were measured at 9-14 weeks .
2
PAPP-A and free BETA-hCG values were significantly higher ( p = 004 and p < 001 respectively ) and NT was lower ( p = 002 ) in pregnancies with a female foetus .
3
Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A and free BETA-human chorionic gonadotropin ( BETA-hCG ) , and second trimester :
4
PAPP-A and BETA-hCG levels were obtained between 11 and 13 (6) / (7) weeks gestation and converted to multiples of the median ( MoM ) .
5
PAPP-A and free BETA-hCG levels were measured between gestational week 8 + 0 and 13 + 6 and were related to TTP .
6
PAPP-A <1st percentile ( OR 54 , 95% CI 28-103 ) and PAPP-A <5th percentile ( OR 27 , 95% CI 19-39 ) and free beta-hCG <1st percentile ( OR 27 , 95% CI 13-59 ) were associated with increased risk of intrauterine growth restriction ( IUGR ) with positive predictive values of 24.1% , 14.1% , and 14.3% , respectively .
7
PAPP-A and free BETA-hCG in relation to admission to neonatal intensive care unit and neonatal disease .
8
PAPP-A and free BETA-hCG measured prior to 10 weeks is associated with preterm delivery and small-for-gestational-age infants .
9
PAPP-A and free beta-hCG concentrations and nuchal translucency measurements .
10
PAPP-A and free BETA-hCG were measured on both the early and late samples .
11
PAPP-A , free BETA-hCG , and early fetal growth identify two pathways leading to preterm delivery .
12
Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A , free beta-hCG , nuchal translucency , and risk of pregnancy loss .
13
PAPP-A was <0.4 MoM in 23 , and f BETA-HCG was >1.91 MoM in 49 patients .
14
PAPP-A and beta-hCG concentrations measured by the dual assay in 39 first-trimester serum samples correlated excellently with those obtained by DELFIA single-label PAPP-A ( r = 0997 ) and the beta-hCG part ( r = 0993 ) of the DELFIA AFP/beta hCG dual-label assay .
15
PAPP-A and free BETA-hCG were measured in the first trimester .
16
PAPP-A and free BETA-hCG were measured between gestational weeks 8 and 13 and converted into multiples of the median ( MoM ) values .
17
PAPP-A and beta-hCG were converted to multiples of the median ( MoM ) , and primary exposure was defined as < or =10th percentile MoM for PAPP-A .
18
PAPP-A is following and free BETA-hCG is not useful with a test positive rate of about a third .
19
Low PAPP-A was also significantly associated with neonatal hypoglycemia , jaundice , and low Apgar score and low free BETA-hCG with jaundice .
20
Serum PAPP-A and free beta-hCG levels were assessed , and crown-rump length , nuchal translucency , and FMF angle were measured in all patients. 1350 fetuses with known follow-up were included in the final analysis .
21
For PAPP-A , there was no significant change in median across the gestational period of 11 to 20 weeks , whilst for free beta-hCG , there was a significant increase with gestation ( r = 0458 , p < 0001 ) .
22
Combining PAPP-A and free BETA-hCG offered a better AUC than each parameter alone .
23
Low PAPP-A and low free BETA-hCG were significantly associated with preterm delivery ( <37 weeks ) .
24
Serum PAPP-A and free beta-hCG are first-trimester screening markers for Down syndrome .
25
Low PAPP-A and free BETA-hCG were significantly associated with admission to NICU and neonatal disease , independently from what could be expected because of preterm delivery or low birth weight .
26
To evaluate pregnancy-associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) and free BETA-human chorionic gonadotrophin ( BETA-hCG ) in relation to admission to a neonatal intensive care unit ( NICU ) and neonatal disease .
27
Low PAPP-A , low free BETA-hCG and slow early fetal growth were statistically , independently associated with SGA , and the association between free BETA-hCG < 0.3 MoM and SGA was as strong as that between PAPP-A < 0.3 MoM and SGA ( OR , 31 and 30 , respectively ) .
28
Median PAPP-A and beta-hCG levels tended to increase , but not significantly in women who had had 2 or more miscarriages .
29
In PAPP-A the reverse effect was seen but it did not reach statistical significance ( p = 015 ) and there was no effect for free beta-hCG .
30
Maternal serum PAPP-A and free beta-hCG at 11-13 ( +6 ) weeks and uterine artery PI at 22-24 weeks were measured in 4390 women with singleton pregnancies .
31
The serum markers pregnancy-associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) and the free beta-chain of chorionic gonadotrophin ( free beta-hCG ) were both shown to be decreased in the same blood sample .
32
Maternal serum PAPP-A and free beta-hCG were analyzed by fluoroimmunoassay , nuchal translucency ( NT ) was measured by transvaginal sonography .
33
Maternal serum PAPP-A and free beta-hCG were compared between patients with ( n = 64 ) and without habitual abortions ( n = 849 ) .
34
First-trimester ( pregnancy-associated plasma protein A and beta-hCG ) and second-trimester serum analytes ( beta-hCG , alpha-fetoprotein , unconjugated estriol , and inhibin A ) had been measured at the time of sample receipt .
35
The median PAPP-A level in smokers was 0.81 MoM , a significant reduction ( p < 0005 ) ; free beta-hCG was also reduced ( median 089 MoM ) but not significantly ( p = 017 ) , and AFP was unaltered .
36
The markers PAPP-A , free beta-hCG and the nuchal translucency ( NT ) thickness were examined at 12-14 weeks gestation .
37
Maternal serum PAPP-A levels in the late first trimester of pregnancy are associated with subsequent fetal growth ( including both physiologic variation and abnormal growth ) , and decreased free beta-hCG is more predictive of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy .
38
The median PAPP-A and free BETA-hCG MoMs were significantly lower in women with a TTP ≥24 months compared with the reference group with a TTP <6 months ( PAPP-A :
39
Beta-hCG and PAPP-A were analyzed in 6441 cases .
40
For both PAPP-A and free beta-hCG , the relationships were linear with slopes of 1.08 and 1.07 .
41
Mean values of PAPP-A and beta-hCG were reduced in women who smoked 5 or more cigarettes a day compared with nonsmokers .
42
Serum-free BETA-hCG and PAPP-A concentrations were significantly affected by gestational age , maternal weight , racial origin , parity , preexisting diabetes mellitus type 2 , smoking and conception by in_vitro fertilization .
43
Free BETA-hCG and PAPP-A levels were determined in the Cooled and Uncooled serum samples using a DELFIA ( REGISTERED ) Xpress analyzer .
44
Normal values of PAPP-A , free beta-hCG , and nuchal translucency are associated with a very low risk of pregnancy loss at less than 20 weeks .
45
Serum concentrations of PAPP-A and free BETA-hCG were measured during the first trimester in a group of 2339 Thai women undergoing normal singleton pregnancies .
46
The association between PAPP-A and BETA-hCG with adverse pregnancy outcomes is influenced by the mode of conception .
47
Serum-free BETA-hCG and PAPP-A concentrations at 9 ( +0 ) -13 ( +6 ) weeks gestation are affected by several pregnancy characteristics and the effect of Afro-Caribbean race on PAPP-A increases with gestational age .
48
Differences in median PAPP-A , free beta-hCG and , to a lesser extent , in NT exist in Afro-Caribbean , South Asian and Oriental women .
49
Free beta-HCG and PAPP-A were measured on dried blood spots and converted to MoMs .
50
The concentrations of PAPP-A and free beta-hCG were measured between 10 and 14 weeks and were converted to multiples of medians ( MoM ) for comparisons .
51
First-trimester screening consisted of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) , free beta-hCG , and nuchal translucency .
52
Free beta-hCG , PAPP-A and NT levels were compared between the IVF and control groups and between the ICSI and control groups using the Mann-Whitney U test .
53
Free beta-hCG , PAPP-A and fetal NT were measured at 11-14 weeks of gestation in a group of women presenting for first-trimester screening in two OSCAR centres .
54
Free beta-hCG and PAPP-A levels did not significantly change with the number of notches .
55
Results of maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) and beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin ( beta-hCG ) adjusted for gestational age were compared between Rh-negative and Rh-positive women with p < 0.05 considered significant .
56
Low levels of PAPP-A had a stronger association with adverse pregnancy outcomes than a low level of free beta-hCG which is consistent with results in published studies .
57
The maternal serum PAPP-A , free beta-hCG , activin A and inhibin A concentrations at 22 + 0 to 24 + 6 weeks gestation were measured in samples obtained from women with singleton pregnancies who participated in a screening study for pre-eclampsia by transvaginal color flow Doppler measurement of the uterine artery pulsatility index ( PI ) .
58
Low beta-hCG and PAPP-A values ( below 04 MoM ) were observed in 0.5% of the women including all cases of triploidy and trisomy 18 and 13 .
59
The combination of PAPP-A MoM and beta-hCG MoM yielded a detection rate ( DR ) for SGA of 26% for a 5% false-positive rate ( FPR ) .
60
In combination with PAPP-A , total hCG would identify 52% of cases , somewhat less than the 67% observed with free beta-hCG and PAPP-A .
61
Serum levels of PAPP-A and free BETA-hCG were determined at the first-trimester screening for Down syndrome .
62
To evaluate whether measuring pregnancy-associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) and free BETA-human chorionic gonadotrophin ( BETA-hCG ) before 10 weeks of gestation affect the association between these biomarkers and adverse pregnancy outcomes .
63
Free beta-hCG and PAPP-A concentrations were measured in stored maternal serum samples obtained at 12 weeks of gestation from 22 women with fetuses affected by homozygous alpha0-thalassemia and from 436 controls matched for maternal age , ethnicity , and weight , as well as gestation at blood sampling .
64
Fetal nuchal translucency ( NT ) , maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) , free beta-hCG and the false-positive rate of the test were compared between pregnancies with ( n = 253 ) and without ( n = 2077 ) a history of early vaginal bleeding .
65
FMF software generated all risk assessments based on nuchal translucency ( NT ) , maternal serum-free beta human chorionic gonadotropin ( beta-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) .
66
Use of ART decreased PAPP-A and increased free beta-hCG levels .
67
The first trimester combined screening , which analyzes fetal nuchal translucency and levels of free BETA-human chorionic gonadotropin ( BETA-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) in maternal serum , is routinely used to detect abnormal pregnancies associated with Down syndrome and other trisomy aneuploidies .
68
Correlation with previously established PAPP-A and free beta-hCG multiple of the medians ( MoMs ) and delta nuchal translucency ( NT ) were determined and used to model the performance of first-trimester screening with ADAM 12 in combination with other first-trimester markers at various time periods across the first trimester .
69
The purpose of this case-control study was to examine the association of first-trimester concentrations of free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin ( free beta-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) in maternal serum with subsequent preterm delivery or small-for-gestational age ( SGA ) fetuses .
70
The value of nuchal translucency ( NT ) and BETA-hCG and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) level were inputted computer , and calculate the risk value ( ≥ 1 :
71
To determine the levels of free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin ( beta-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) in twin pregnancies in the first trimester .
72
Fluorimetric immunoassays for maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) and free beta-hCG .
73
Maternal charateristics combined with PAPP-A , BETA-hCG , fetal NT and uterine artery PI identified 30.2 % LGA ( FPR 10% ) .
74
The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential effectiveness of maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) and free beta-hCG in combination with nuchal translucency thickness in first trimester screening for Downs syndrome .
75
Combining free beta-hCG and PAPP-A or all three markers with maternal age would have the ability to detect 74 per cent of cases at a 0.5 per cent false positive rate ( or 64 per cent at a 01 per cent false positive rate ) .
76
First trimester maternal serum PAPP-A and free BETA-HCG levels in hyperemesis gravidarum .
77
To determine if a simplified model for predicting pre-eclampsia ( PEC ) can be developed by combining first-trimester serum analytes , pregnancy-associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) and free beta human chorionic gonadotrophin ( BETA-hCG ) , and maternal characteristics .
78
Both free beta-hCG and PAPP-A median values demonstrated an exponential relationship with gestational age in days .
79
To examine the performance of screening for trisomies 21 , 18 and 13 at 11-13 weeks gestation using specific algorithms for these trisomies based on combinations of fetal nuchal translucency thickness ( NT ) , fetal heart rate ( FHR ) , ductus venosus pulsatility index for veins ( DV PIV ) , and serum free BETA-human chorionic gonadotropin ( BETA-hCG ) , pregnancy-associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) , placental growth factor ( PLGF ) and ALPHA-fetoprotein ( AFP ) .
80
Maternal characteristics , fetal nuchal translucency thickness , maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) and free BETA human chorionic gonadotrophin ( BETA-hCG ) were evaluated .
81
Our study population , including 19 DS pregnancies , was evaluated using maternal serum levels of alpha-fetoprotein ( AFP ) , beta-human chorionic gonadotropin ( beta-hCG ) , and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) .
82
Median MoM values of PAPP-A ( 064 versus 102 , p < 0001 ) , beta-hCG ( 074 versus 104 , p = 0007 ) and ADAM12 ( 074 versus 097 , p = 0004 ) were significantly reduced in cases compared to controls .
83
Data on maternal smoking status , maternal age , gestational dating , levels of free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin ( beta-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) in maternal blood and fetal nuchal translucency ( NT ) thickness were analyzed from a cohort of 53 114 women .
84
Maternal serum levels of PAPP-A and free BETA-hCG were measured between week 8 and 13 weeks and 6 days .
85
Maternal serum-free beta-hCG and PAPP-A were measured between 11 + 0 and 13 + 6 weeks as part of a routine first-trimester screening program in conjunction with fetal nuchal translucency ( NT ) performed at two sites .
86
In our study , we tried to assess the relation between ductus venosus Doppler indices [pulsatility index ( PI ) , resistance index ( RI ) and S/D] and first-trimester screening markers ( MoM of serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein A , pappalysin 1 ( PAPP-A ) , MoM of serum free BETA-human chorionic gonadotrophin ( BETA-hCG ) , and nuchal translucency ( NT ) and second trimester screening markers ( MoM of serum ALPHA-fetoprotein , MoM of serum total BETA-hCG and MoM of serum estriol ) .
87
In both euploid and aneuploid pregnancies there was a significant association of serum PP13 with both serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) and free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin ( beta-hCG ; p < 00001 for both ) .
88
Data were collected from 1275 pregnant Turkish women screened prospectively for chromosomal anomalies to determine whether first-trimester levels of maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) and free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin ( beta-hCG ) and the thickness of nuchal translucency are affected by smoking and other covariables .
89
Of these 90 , literature searches on the 45 EST clusters with known functions showed 44 linked to placental physiology or proposed as markers for prenatal diagnosis [i.e. beta-hCG , pregnancy-specific glycoproteins , human placental lactogens , pregnancy-associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) ] .
90
The test combines the ultrasound scan of nuchal translucency thickness and maternal biochemical serum levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) and free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin ( BETA-hCG ) .
91
Serum free BETA-hCG , PAPP-A and PlGF were measured at 11-13 and at 30-33 weeks of gestation in a case-control study of 50 cases that developed PE at or after 34 weeks and 250 unaffected controls .
92
This was a prospective assessment of singleton pregnancies by maternal history , serum free beta-hCG , pregnancy-associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) , fetal nuchal translucency thickness , and ductus venosus Doppler .
93
The results of the study show that maternal hepatitis B carrier status does not influence first-trimester levels of maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin ( free beta-hCG ) multiples of the median ( MoM ) , pregnancy-associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) MoM , and median fetal nuchal translucency and screening false-positive rate ; therefore , correction in the risk calculation algorithm for maternal hepatitis B carrier status is not necessary .
94
To assess the association between serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) and free BETA-human chorionic gonadotropin ( free BETA-hCG ) in the first trimester and perinatal complications in post-date pregnancies .
95
Twin pregnancies secrete more PAPP-A than expected on the basis of singleton controls whereas free beta-hCG production is not increased .
96
To explore if maternal serum free beta-hCG and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) levels in the first-trimester of pregnancy are altered in patients with habitual abortions and if there is an effect on first-trimester screening for Down syndrome .
97
A positive correlation between PAPP-A and CRL levels , as well as a weak negative correlation between free beta-hCG and CRL , were demonstrated .
98
To examine the efficacy of first trimester screening for trisomy 21 using a combination of maternal age , fetal nuchal translucency ( NT ) , maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin ( free beta-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) in a regional setting [maternity unit of the Womens University Hospital , Hannover Medical School ( study center ) ; two regional private centers for prenatal diagnosis and human genetics ; laboratory for prenatal diagnosis and human genetics] .
99
A 30-year-old woman , gravida 2 , para 1 , was referred for nuchal translucency , free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin ( beta-hCG ) , and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) screening at 12 weeks gestation .
100
Fetal karyotype , serum levels of free beta-hCG , pregnancy-associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) and alpha-fetoprotein and the measurement of nuchal translucency .
101
Serum free BETA-hCG and PAPP-A concentrations at 7-14 weeks gestation are affected by several pregnancy characteristics .
102
Maternal free BETA-hCG and PAPP-A levels were expressed as multiples of the respective normal median ( MoM ) , and fetal NT was expressed as a difference from the expected median ( DELTA ) .
103
To examine the ability of predicting fetuses being small-for-gestational-age ( SGA ) at delivery with the maternal serum markers pregnancy-associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) , beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin ( beta-hCG ) and A disintegrin and metalloprotease 12 ( ADAM12 ) in first trimester .
104
To determine the association of , and predictive ability of , pregnancy-associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) , free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin ( beta-hCG ) , and nuchal translucency ( NT ) with preterm birth ( PTB ) .
105
The impact of errors in CRL measurement were investigated by simulating fetal nuchal translucency ( NT ) measurements and multiple of the median ( MoM ) values for pregnancy-associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) and free BETA-human chorionic gonadotropin ( BETA-hCG ) for 500 000 euploid and 500 000 trisomy 21 pregnancies at 12 weeks and 9 weeks of gestation , and adding to or subtracting from each CRL value up to 10 mm and recalculating patient-specific risks .
106
First trimester maternal serum PAPP-A , beta-hCG and ADAM12 in prediction of small-for-gestational-age fetuses .
107
Maternal serum levels of PAPP-A and free BETA-hCG were measured between gestational weeks 8 and 13 .
108
Likewise , agreement for PAPP-A and free beta-hCG was excellent for the AutoDelfia vs .
109
In a previous study we examined the changes in the median multiple of the median ( MoM ) with gestation of free beta human chorionic gonadotrophin ( F beta-hCG ) , total human chorionic gonadotrophin ( ThCG ) , alpha-fetoprotein ( AFP ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) in a large series of Downs syndrome pregnancies .
110
We compared these levels with those of other potential first trimester serum markers [free beta-hCG , pregnancy-associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) and total hCG ( ThCG ) ] and modeled detection rates and false-positive rates of various biochemical markers in conjunction with fetal nuchal translucency ( NT ) and maternal age using an maternal age standardized population .
111
We evaluated the impact of assisted reproductive technology ( ART ) on the association between first-trimester pregnancy-associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) and human chorionic gonadotropin ( BETA-hCG ) and adverse pregnancy outcomes .
112
Measurement of nuchal translucency ( NT ) alone ; serum screening ( pregnancy-associated plasma protein A [PAPP-A] and free beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin [beta-hCG] ) alone ; and combined screening ( NT plus PAPP-A and free beta-hCG ) .
113
Maternal serum levels of PAPP-A and free beta-hCG for 1882 women randomly selected from a pathology database in New South Wales ( NSW ) were linked to routinely collected birth and hospital databases .
114
Ethnic group-specific medians for PAPP-A and free BETA-hCG should be incorporated during first-trimester screening for fetal Down syndrome .
115
Stored blood samples from PAPP-A and beta-hCG testing obtained at gestational age ( GA ) of 8 weeks to 13 weeks and 6 days were analyzed for ADAM12 .
116
Maternal serum-free BETA-hCG , PAPP-A , and AFP concentrations were measured before cordocentesis , and the final fetal diagnosis of Hb Bart disease was based on fetal Hb typing using high-performance liquid chromatography .
117
Fetal delta-nuchal translucency ( NT ) , maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) and free beta-hCG were compared between pregnancies with ( n = 252 ) and without ( n = 1503 ) an episode of vaginal bleeding .
118
Early fetal growth , PAPP-A and free BETA-hCG in relation to risk of delivering a small-for-gestational age infant .
119
1 ) Triple Screen-maternal serum alpha fetoprotein , estriol , and hCG ; 2 ) Quad-maternal serum alpha fetoprotein , estriol , hCG , and Inhibin A ; 3 ) Combined First-nuchal translucency , pregnancy-associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) , free beta-hCG ; 4 ) Integrated-nuchal translucency , PAPP-A , plus Quad ; 5 ) Serum Integrated-PAPP-A , plus Quad ; 6 ) Stepwise Sequential-Combined First plus Quad with results given after each test ; and 7 ) Contingent Sequential-Combined First and only those with risk between 1 : 30 and 1 : 1,500 have Quad screen .
120
The median concentrations of PAPP-A and free beta-hCG , expressed in MOMs , in the 73 SGA pregnancies were 0.83 and 0.95 , respectively , compared with 0.98 and 1.01 , respectively , in the 292 matched controls ( P = 008 and 019 , respectively ) .
121
Gaslini Institute for antenatal care , we evaluated first-trimester risk screening for Down syndrome using the combined test based on ultrasound measurement of nuchal translucency ( NT ) , maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) and free beta-hCG , and maternal age .
122
ADAM12 was correlated with PAPP-A ( r = 01918 ) in the first trimester of cases with trisomy 18 but less so with NT ( r = 01594 ) and free beta-hCG ( r = 00938 ) .
123
To investigate the performance of first-trimester screening for aneuploidies by including assessment of tricuspid blood flow in the combined test of maternal age , fetal nuchal translucency ( NT ) thickness , fetal heart rate ( FHR ) and serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin ( beta-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) .
124
The means of the multiples of the median ( MoM ) of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) , free BETA-human chorionic gonadotropin ( BETA-hCG ) and nuchal translucency of the poor responder and normoresponder groups were compared and a potential relationship between serum markers and poor ovarian reserve was investigated .
125
To evaluate the risk of fetal growth restriction ( FGR ) associated with first-trimester maternal serum concentrations of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) and free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin ( beta-hCG ) .
126
Maternal serum levels of PAPP-A and free beta-hCG were assayed in stored sera from 32 Downs syndrome and 200 unaffected pregnancies .
127
To assess the correlation between first-trimester uterine artery Doppler measurements and maternal serum levels of free beta-hCG and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) .
128
To evaluate the effect of in_vitro fertilization ( IVF ) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection ( ICSI ) on free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin ( beta-hCG ) , pregnancy-associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) and nuchal translucency ( NT ) .
129
Serum samples were analysed for pregnancy-associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) and the free beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotrophin ( f beta-hCG ) .
130
Serum free BETA-hCG and PAPP-A concentrations were significantly affected by gestational age , maternal weight , racial origin , parity , smoking and mode of conception .
131
To evaluate early fetal growth and the biomarkers , pregnancy-associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) and free BETA-human chorionic gonadotrophin ( BETA-hCG ) , in relation to preterm delivery .
132
Maternal serum levels of PAPP-A and free beta-hCG were assayed retrospectively in stored sera from 323 singleton pregnancies at 8-13 weeks gestation .
133
Thai reference ranges of PAPP-A and free BETA-hCG were established by gestational age ( 70-98 days ) .
134
Maternal age , serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein A and free beta-hCG and fetal nuchal translucency at 10 to 14 weeks gestation ; integrated screen :
135
Placenta growth factor ( PIGF ) , an angiogenic factor belonging to the vascular endothelial growth factor family , pregnancy-associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) and free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin ( beta-hCG ) were measured in maternal serum from 45 pregnancies with trisomy 21 , 45 with trisomy 18 and 493 normal controls at 10-13 completed weeks of gestation .
136
Using time-resolved fluorometry , a simple one-step dual-label immunometric assay has been developed , which allows simultaneous determination of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) and free beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotrophin ( beta-hCG ) in first-trimester maternal serum samples .
137
To investigate whether markers of first trimester screening for aneuploidies , including fetal nuchal translucency ( NT ) , maternal serum free BETA-human chorionic gonadotropin ( BETA-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) , are altered in women with pre-existing type-1 and type-2 diabetes mellitus , and in women that subsequently develop gestational diabetes mellitus ( GDM ) .
138
Recent spontaneous reduction is associated with higher values of PAPP-A and free beta-hCG .
139
The medians +/- SD log ( 10 ) MoM of PAPP-A and free beta-hCG +/- SD in patients with and without habitual abortions were 0.063 +/- 0.28 versus - 0.014 +/- 0.27 and - 0.001 +/- 0.27 versus - 0.018 +/- 0.31 , with a p value of 0.042 and 0.87 , respectively .
140
Maternal body weight was corrected , particularly for maternal free beta-hCG and PAPP-A using standard methods .
141
The relationships between free beta-hCG and PAPP-A were excellent for the different Delfia Xpress systems ( r > 099 , p < 00001 ) .
142
The overall median weight-corrected multiple of the median ( MoM ) values of PAPP-A and f beta-hCG were 1.12 and 1.03 , respectively .
143
The women underwent a nuchal translucency ultrasound measurement and a blood sampling for pregnancy-associated plasma protein A and free beta-hCG subunit ( free total chorionic gonadotropin subunit ) assay in the first trimester of pregnancy .
144
HG is associated with elevated levels of PAPP-A and free BETA-hCG , and such changes are independent of serum indicators of thyroid and liver function .
145
The distribution and the 5% and 95% , lower and upper limits of NT , PAPP-A and free beta-hCG was presented .
146
Maternal characteristics , fetal nuchal translucency ( NT ) , free BETA-human chorionic gonadotrophin ( BETA-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) were recorded at 11 ( +0 ) -13 ( +6 ) weeks in 36,743 singleton pregnancies .
147
Data from two prospective first-trimester OSCAR screening programmes including 32,010 women with first-trimester maternal serum-free beta-hCG and PAPP-A measured by the Kryptor analyser was analysed by regression analysis to provide parameters for the log-linear and reciprocal-linear MoM correction procedures .
148
Maternal and neonatal data were abstracted from the medical records and PAPP-A , BETA-hCG , NT and CRL MoM values were compared between the two groups .
149
First-trimester nuchal translucency and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A can detect triploidy and determine the parental origin .
150
Logistic regression analysis was used to determine if maternal factors , fetal NT , free BETA-hCG , and PAPP-A contribute significantly in predicting SGA in the absence of preeclampsia .
151
In this case control study , serum AFP was measured in 100 trisomy 21 and 1,500 euploid pregnancies in which screening for trisomy 21 had been performed by a combination of serum free BETA-hCG and PAPP-A and fetal NT at 11-13 weeks gestation .
152
All three trisomies are associated with increased maternal age , increased fetal NT and decreased PAPP-A , but in trisomy 21 serum free BETA-hCG is increased whereas in trisomies 18 and 13 free BETA-hCG is decreased.
153
On average free beta-hCG values are 2.099 times greater in twins than in singletons and PAPP-A some 1.86 times greater .
154
Maternal levels of free BETA-hCG in treated HIV-positive pregnant women were lower compared with those in non-treated HIV-positive and HIV-negative women , whereas the PAPP-A levels and fetal NT remained unaltered .
155
We estimate that detection rates in excess of 75% for a false positive rate ( FPR ) of 3% can be achieved with first trimester measures of PAPP-A , total hCG and Free beta-hCG at 8 weeks-the addition of total hCG adding 11% .
156
Screening for trisomy 21 by a combination of maternal age , fetal nuchal translucency ( NT ) thickness and maternal serum free beta-hCG and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) at 11 to 14 weeks of gestation is associated with a detection rate of 90% for a false-positive rate of 5% .
157
From 1999 to 2007 , the first-trimester Down syndrome screening including nuchal thickness , pregnancy-associated plasma protein A and free beta-hCG are provided to 10 811 singleton women <35 years of age with the cut-off of 1/270 .
158
The mean multiples of median of pregnancy associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) , free beta human chorionic gonadotrophin ( beta-hCG ) and nuchal translucency were compared by independent samples t test after logarithmic transformation of the data between smokers and non-smokers .
159
The maternal serum levels of multiples of median of free beta-hCG and PAPP-A were significantly higher among the Chinese than among the Caucasians .
160
In the spontaneous miscarriage group , significant correlations between P4 and beta-hCG , P4 and PAPP-A and AEA and PAPP-A levels were observed .
161
The relative risk of having a preterm birth with a low maternal serum PAPP-A level was 3.44 ( 95% CI 196-610 ) and a low free beta-hCG level was 1.31 ( 95% CI 055-616 ) .
162
Fluorimetric immunoassays for free beta-hCG and PAPP-A .
163
Total hCG , free beta-hCG and PAPP-A ( pregnancy associated plasma protein A ) was analysed .
164
This study evaluates diagnostic efficacy of PAPP-A and F beta-hCG in the detection of first trimester pregnancy abnormalities , including Down syndrome ( DS ) .
165
During the first trimester scan , routinely performed between 11 and 13+6 week of pregnancy the calculation of the risk for chromosomal aberrations is based on maternal age ( MA ) , nuchal translucency ( NT ) , levels of free beta human chorionic gonadotropin ( free beta-hCG ) , pregnancy associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) in maternal blood , as well as the parameters from extended ultrasound examination like evaluation of the nasal bone ( NB ) , blood flow in ductus venosus ( DV ) , visualization of the tricuspid valve with potential regurgitation ( TR ) or measurement of the frontomaxillary facial angle ( FMFA ) .
166
In this study , we investigated whether the concentrations of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) or free BETA-hCG ( fBETAhCG ) in the first trimester can identify women at increased risk of subsequent preterm delivery in the absence of hypertensive disorders .
167
In contrast , the median MoM free beta-hCG was significantly increased ( 205 versus 100 ) with 36% above the 95th centile and PAPP-A was significantly reduced ( 049 versus 100 ) with 42% below the 5th centile .
168
To examine potential performance of screening for trisomies by cell-free ( cf ) DNA testing in maternal blood contingent on results of first-line testing by combinations of fetal translucency thickness ( NT ) , fetal heart rate ( FHR ) , ductus venosus pulsatility index ( DV PIV ) , and serum-free BETA-human chorionic gonadotropin ( BETA-hCG ) , pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) , placental growth factor ( PLGF ) and ALPHA-fetoprotein ( AFP ) .
169
The objective of this study is to determine whether there is an association between the maternal serum concentration of PAPP-A and free beta-hCG at 11-13 ( +6 ) weeks with the uterine artery pulsatility index ( PI ) at 22-24 weeks , and secondly , to compare the screening characteristics of the two methods in the prediction of adverse pregnancy outcome .
170
For free beta-hCG , the log-linear procedure was marginally superior to the reciprocal-linear procedure ( r2 = 0986 v 0980 ) , whilst for PAPP-A the reciprocal-linear procedure was marginally better ( r2 = 0991 v 0985 ) .
171
In a study of 2923 normal pregnancies and 203 pregnancies affected by trisomy 21 we have shown a significant difference in the median MoM of the markers : fetal nuchal translucency , maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A in the presence of a female fetus compared with a male fetus .
172
First-trimester screening for chromosomal abnormalities by integrated application of nuchal translucency , nasal bone , tricuspid regurgitation and ductus venosus flow combined with maternal serum free BETA-hCG and PAPP-A : a 5-year prospective study .
173
There were no significant differences between the IDDM and non-IDDM groups in median maternal weight corrected free beta-hCG ( IDDM 087 MoM , 95% Confidence Interval 075 to 116 MoM , non-IDDM 100 MoM ) , median maternal weight corrected PAPP-A ( IDDM 102 MoM , 95% Confidence Interval 083 to 105 MoM , non-IDDM 101 MoM ) , or mean delta NT ( IDDM 00358 mm , non-IDDM 00002 mm ) .
174
The distributions ( in multiples of the median ; MoM ) of free beta-hCG and PAPP-A ( corrected for maternal weight ) and fetal nuchal translucency ( NT ) were determined in the trisomy 21 group and the controls .
175
In this group , free beta-hCG and PAPP-A did not significantly correlate with uterine artery RI or PI ( r values between -0089 and 0029 , all nonsignificant ) .
176
In Down syndrome the medians were for PAPP-A 0.63 MOM ( 95 per cent confidence interval ( CI ) 0.45-0.87 ) ; free beta-hCG 1.88 MOM ( 133-266 ) ; and NT 2.34 MOM ( 170-322 ) .
177
Low free beta-hCG , low PAPP-A , and increased nuchal translucency were all associated with an increased rate of fetal abnormality .
178
After maternal weight correction , in Afro-Caribbean women , the median PAPP-A was increased by 55% and the free beta-hCG increased by 11% .
179
Correlation with previously established pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) and free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin ( beta-hCG ) multiples of the median ( MoMs ) and nuchal translucency thickness ( NT ) MoM were determined and used to model the performance of first trimester screening with ADAM12 in combination with other first trimester markers .
180
All samples are analysed for free beta-hCG and PAPP-A before an accurate estimate of gestation is available .
181
To investigate the potential value of maternal serum concentrations of free BETA-human chorionic gonadotrophin ( BETA-hCG ) , pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) and placental growth factor ( PlGF ) at 30-33 weeks of gestation in the prediction of pre-eclampsia ( PE ) developing at or after 34 weeks .
182
Results for Inhibin , Activin , PAPP-A and Free beta-hCG were available from previous studies .
183
In 45 cases of trisomy 18 and 493 control pregnancies at 10-14 weeks of gestation , maternal serum inhibin A , total activin A , free beta-hCG and PAPP-A were measured .
184
The efficiency of six maternal serum markers for Downs syndrome ( DS ) , alpha fetoprotein ( AFP ) , human chorionic gonadotropin ( hCG ) , free beta-hCG , pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) , the proform of eosinophil major basic protein ( ProMBP ) , pregnancy-specific-beta-1-glycoprotein ( SP(1) ) , and combinations thereof , was examined .
185
Significant contributions in the prediction of trisomy 21 were provided by maternal age , serum PlGF , PAPP-A and free beta-hCG , and the detection rates of screening with the combination of these variables were 70% and 80% at respective false-positive rates of 3% and 5% .
186
First trimester free BETA-hCG median MoM levels in HIV-infected pregnancies were not different to controls ( 0978 vs. 0981 , p = 1000 ) , as were PAPP-A levels ( 1190 vs. 1102 , p = 0099 ) and DELTA-NT ( 01374 vs. 00445 , p = 00631 ) .
187
The odds of a fetal aneuploidy when the NT was greater than 2.0 multiples of median ( MoM ) was 90 , when serum PAPP-A concentration was less than 0.45 MoM , it was 8.6 , and when serum free beta-hCG concentration was greater than 2.2 MoM , it was 4.7 .
188
Screening for trisomy 13 by fetal nuchal translucency and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A at 10-14 weeks of gestation .
189
Two monoclonal antibodies were biotinylated and immobilized onto the surface of streptavidin-coated microtitration plates , and used to capture PAPP-A and beta-hCG .
190
Early first-trimester free beta-hCG and PAPP-A serum distributions in monochorionic and dichorionic twins .
191
Screening for trisomy 18 using a combination of maternal age , PAPP-A and free beta-hCG would achieve a detection rate of 76.6 per cent for a false-positive rate of 0.5 per cent .
192
The overall median MoM free beta-hCG and that in the bleeding and non-bleeding group were 0.9854 , 1.0012 and 0.9832 , and for PAPP-A were 1.0407 , 1.0413 and 1.037 .
193
Proposed protocols based on first-trimester NT , PAPP-A and free beta-hCG or total hCG , followed by selective use of second-trimester quadruple markers can result in a 91% detection rate and 2.1% false-positive rate for the United Kingdom and a detection rate of 89% and false-positive rate of 3.1% for the United States .
194
We examined 54,722 singleton pregnancies with no chromosomal abnormality and with complete outcome data that had undergone screening for trisomy 21 by a combination of fetal nuchal translucency ( NT ) thickness , maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin ( beta-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) at 11 + 0 and 13 + 6 weeks gestation .
195
Screening for trisomy 21 in twin pregnancies in the first trimester : does chorionicity impact on maternal serum free beta-hCG or PAPP-A levels ?
196
In 42 cases of trisomy 13 at 10-14 weeks of gestation , compared with 947 controls , the median multiple of the median ( MoM ) of maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin ( beta-hCG ) and pregnancy associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) was significantly decreased ( 0506 MoM and 0248 MoM respectively ) , whilst fetal nuchal translucency was increased ( 2872 MoM ) .
197
There was a statistically significant difference between cases and controls , in the distribution of free beta-hCG and PAPP-A levels , adjusted for gestation .
198
To examine the effectiveness in screening for triploidy at 11 weeks to 13 weeks and 6 days of gestation by the combined use of the risk algorithms for trisomies 21 , 18 and 13 based on maternal age , fetal nuchal translucency ( NT ) thickness , fetal heart rate ( FHR ) and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A .
199
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether a gender-related difference exists in first trimester markers used for Down syndrome screening , namely nuchal translucency ( NT ) , maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) , and free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin ( beta-hCG ) , and whether this has an influence on screening performance .
200
Comparison with EQA samples showed a 2% positive bias against the ALTM for free beta-hCG and a 21% positive bias for PAPP-A , which reduced to 11% when compared with the Kryptor method mean .
201
Significant independent prediction of fetal fraction was provided by maternal weight , serum PAPP-A and serum free BETA-hCG multiples of the median , but not by other maternal characteristics , fetal karyotype , crown-rump length or nuchal translucency thickness .
202
There were no significant differences in median maternal age , median gestational age , free beta-hCG multiples of the median ( MoM ) and PAPP-A MoM in trisomy 21 fetuses with and without tricuspid regurgitation .
203
Screening for trisomy 18 by fetal nuchal translucency and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A at 10-14 weeks of gestation .
204
Prediction of macrosomia provided by maternal factors was significantly improved by fetal NT , free BETA-hCG and PAPP-A ( 344 vs. 331% at a false-positive rate of 10% ) .
205
The association between free beta-hCG and PAPP-A and the incidence of SGA were assessed by comparing the relative incidence at MoM cut-offs and birth-weight centile cut-offs .
206
Risks for trisomy 21 and 18/13 were calculated together with serum PAPPA and free beta-hCG in all cases .
207
A serum screening result ( age , pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) and free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin ( beta-hCG ) ) of >or = 1 :
208
This study examines 45 cases of trisomy 13 and 59 cases of trisomy 18 and reports an algorithm to identify pregnancies with a fetus affected by trisomy 13 or 18 by a combination of maternal age fetal nuchal translucency ( NT ) thickness , and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A at 11-14 weeks of gestation .
209
To investigate the outcome of pregnancy after detection of chromosomal mosaicism and to determine the correlation between human chorionic gonadotropin ( free BETA-HCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) levels from first-trimester-screening with pregnancy outcome .
210
As a specific example , we evaluate maternal serum levels of PAPP-A and free beta-hCG as predictors of adverse pregnancy outcomes , and compare our results with those of prospective studies .
211
Screening is now moving towards screening in the first trimester using a combination of ultrasound ( Nuchal Translucency ) and the maternal serum biochemical markers free BETA-hCG and Pregnancy Associated Plasma Protein-A ( PAPP-A ) .
212
We currently use the nuchal translucency and biochemical markers of free BETA-hCG and PAPP-A to determine the risk of fetal aneuploidy .
213
To evaluate the influence of cigarette smoking status on maternal serum free beta-hCG , PAPP-A and fetal nuchal translucency ( NT ) thickness at 11 to 14 weeks of gestation in a large cohort of women screened prospectively for chromosomal anomalies .
214
In type II triploidy fetal NT was not increased ( 088 MoM ) , and there was a decrease in maternal serum total hCG ( 016 MoM ) , free beta-hCG ( 018 MoM ) , PAPP-A ( 006 MoM ) and AFP ( 077 MoM ) .
215
Estimation the sensitivity of the fetal nuchal translucency measurement , biochemical concentrations of PAPP-A and free beta-HCG in detection of the fetal chromosomal abnormalities.582 women in the age 14 to 46 years old with singleton pregnancies were included to the study The screening was performed between 10.0 and 13.6 week of gestation .
216
Two maternal serum markers , free BETA-human chorionic gonadotropin ( BETA-hCG ) and pregnancy associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) , and four fetal ultrasound markers , nuchal translucency thickness , nasal bone , flow across the tricuspid valve , and flow in the ductus venosus ( DV ) , were measured by certified maternal fetal medicine specialists .
217
For an 85% Downs Syndrome detection rate , the false-positive rate for the Integrated test ( nuchal translucency and pregnancy associated plasma protein-A [PAPP-A] at 11 completed weeks of pregnancy , and alpha-fetoprotein , unconjugated oestriol [uE(3) ] , free beta or total human chorionic gondaotrophin ( hCG ) and inhibin-A in the early second trimester ) was 0.9% , the Serum integrated test ( without nuchal translucency ) 2.7% , the Combined test ( nuchal translucency with free beta-hCG and PAPP-A at 11 weeks ) 4.3% , the Quadruple test ( alpha-fetoprotein , uE(3) , free beta or total hCG and inhibin-A ) 6.2% , and nuchal translucency at 11 weeks , 15.2% .
218
Serum 25 ( OH ) D , BETA-hCG , and PAPP-A levels were measured in the first trimester of otherwise healthy Spanish pregnant women ( n = 488 ) .
219
The levels of two potential markers differed between affected and unaffected pregnancies sufficiently to be of value in screening--free beta-hCG and PAPP-A .
220
Our objective was to examine the performance of first-trimester screening for trisomies 21 , 18 and 13 by maternal age , fetal nuchal translucency ( NT ) thickness , fetal heart rate ( FHR ) and maternal serum-free beta-hCG and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) .
221
Normative values have been generated to allow conversion of NT , free beta-hCG and PAPP-A to their MoM equivalents and correction factors have been determined to adjust for maternal and pregnancy characteristics for use in ethnic Chinese women undergoing first-trimester screening for aneuploidy .
222
To compare the levels of maternal serum free BETA-hCG and PAPP-A between pregnancies with fetal homozygous ALPHA-thalassemia-1 disease and unaffected pregnancies .
223
The performance of first trimester screening using early combinations of total hCG , Free beta-hCG and PAPP-A should be assessed in further studies .
224
In each case the patient-specific risk for trisomy 21 was estimated by multiplying the individual maternal age-related risk with the likelihood ratio ( LR ) for fetal nuchal translucency ( NT ) according to the mixture model and the combined LR for maternal serum free BETA-hCG and PAPP-A .
225
Multiple regression analysis revealed , that PAPP-A and BETA-hCG were independently associated with each other ( P = 004 ) but there was no association between GDM/no GDM and the first-trimester serum markers ( P = 077 ) .
226
Among the thrombophilia group median values of pregnancy associated placental protein-A ( PAPP-A ) ( 06 vs. 09 ; P < 0001 ) and free BETA-human chorionic gonadotropin ( BETA-hCG ) ( 09 vs. 11 ; P = 0001 ) in the first trimester ; median values of ALPHA-fetoprotein ( AFP ) ( 07 vs. 11 ; P = 0027 ) , unconjugated estriol 3 ( uE3 ) ( 09 vs. 11 ; P < 0001 ) , and hCG ( 07 vs. 12 ; P < 0001 ) in the second trimester were significantly lower with respect to control pregnancies .
227
First trimester screening with free beta-hCG , PAPP-A and nuchal translucency in pregnancies conceived with assisted reproduction .
228
First trimester maternal serum PIGF , free BETA-hCG , PAPP-A , PP-13 , uterine artery Doppler and maternal history for the prediction of preeclampsia .
229
Although there was a significant and positive correlation between fetal maxillary length and maternal serum PAPP-A levels ( r = 0201 , P < 0001 ) , a significant and negative correlation was found between fetal maxillary length and the maternal serum concentrations of free beta-HCG ( r = -0238 , P < 0001 ) .
230
To estimate the difference between levels of the two biochemical markers pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) and maternal serum free BETA-human chorionic gonadotropin ( free BETA-hCG ) in twin pregnancies relative to singleton pregnancies and establish an improved screening procedure for chromosomal abnormalities such as trisomy 21 in twin pregnancies.4843 unaffected and 47 trisomy 21-affected twin pregnancies were included in the study .
231
Likelihoods were calculated using the mixture model for NT and the standard Gaussian model for log MoM PAPP-A and free BETA-hCG values .
232
In cases of IVF conceptions there was a weekly increase in PAPP-A of 4.5% and in free BETA-hCG of 4.6% .
233
Maternal characteristics were recorded ; fetal NT , maternal serum free BETA-hCG and PAPP-A were measured at 11 weeks to 13 weeks 6 days in 33,602 women with singleton pregnancies .
234
This was an analysis of data from prospective first-trimester combined screening for aneuploidies in singleton pregnancies , with BETA-hCG and PAPP-A measured at 7 + 1 to 14 + 3 weeks gestation .
235
The aim of this paper was to examine the performance of two-stage first-trimester combined screening based on maternal age , fetal nuchal translucency ( NT ) thickness and maternal serum sample """"free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin ( BETA-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) """" .
236
During the five-year study period , 12322 patients with singleton pregnancies underwent combined first-trimester screening using nuchal translucency ( NT ) and maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin ( free beta-hCG ) and pregnancy associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) at 10 to 14 weeks gestation .
237
Biochemical testing before 10 weeks does not affect the association between low PAPP-A and free BETA-hCG and adverse pregnancy outcomes .
238
Loss rates were only 0.36% at less than 20 weeks after normal free beta-hCG , PAPP-A , and nuchal translucency .
239
Maternal serum levels of free beta-hCG and PAPP-A .
240
In the 87 pregnancies with a preterm delivery , the median concentrations of PAPP-A and free beta-hCG were 0.98 and 0.94 , respectively , compared with 0.99 and 0.99 , respectively , in the 348 matched controls ( P = 082 and 010 , respectively ) .
241
The impact of temporal variability of biochemical markers PAPP-A and free beta-hCG on the specificity of the first-trimester Down syndrome screening : a Croatian retrospective study .
242
Screening by maternal age and fetal NT in combination with PlGF and PAPP-A or in combination with PlGF and free BETA-hCG provided detection rates of 82% and 79% , with false-positive rates of 2.7% and 3.0% , respectively .
243
In a first trimester study of 5422 Caucasian women , 752 Afro-Caribbean women and 170 Asian women we have shown that the median maternal serum marker MoMs for free beta-hCG and PAPP-A were 19% and 48% higher in Afro-Caribbean women and 19% higher and 35% higher in Asian women , compared to Caucasian women .
244
Patient-specific combined risks were calculated based on maternal age and fetal NT in addition to free BETA-hCG , PAPP-A and PlGF , PAPP-A and PlGF or free BETA-hCG and PlGF , and detection and false-positive rates were calculated .
245
The VU University Medical Center ( VUmc ) was the first hospital in the Netherlands to introduce the Delfia Xpress for the analysis of free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin ( beta-hCG ) and pregnancy associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) in the first trimester screening program for Down syndrome .
246
In women who smoked during the first trimester of pregnancy , PAPP-A and free beta-hCG levels from dried blood were significantly decreased ( p < 0001 ) and fetal NT thickness was significantly increased ( p < 0001 ) .
247
Screening of Downs syndrome using a combination of maternal age , PAPP-A , free beta-hCG and nuchal translucency would achieve a detection rate of 75.8% for a false positive rate of 5% .
248
We retrospectively compared the first trimester Downs syndrome serum screening markers free beta-hCG ( fbetahCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) at 11-14 weeks of gestation in 4,088 women with naturally conceived pregnancies and in women pregnant after ICSI ( n = 163 ) , IVF ( n = 59 ) and frozen-thawed embryo transfer ( n = 31 ) , and we searched for a potential relationship between infertility cause and marker levels .
249
Combining PP13 bivariately with any of the markers ( PI , PAPP-A , Activin , Inhibin or Free beta-hCG ) tested in the 22-24 week period did not improve the detection of early , late or all cases of pre-eclampsia compared with either marker alone .
250
We have studied maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A , and fetal nuchal translucency ( NT ) in a series of 46 cases of fetal Turners syndrome , 13 cases of other sex chromosomal anomalies and compared these with 947 control pregnancies in the first trimester .
251
However , more data are required before the possible reduction in maternal serum free beta-hCG and the reduction of PAPP-A suggested by the published world series can be considered sufficiently important to take into account in the calculation of risks for chromosomal defects .
252
There were no significant differences in median maternal age , median gestational age , NT delta , free beta-hCG MoM and PAPP-A MoM in trisomy 21 fetuses with and without a visible nasal bone , and similarly for those with trisomies 13 or 18 .
253
20 had undergone nuchal translucency screening ( NT group ) and 20 had undergone serum screening ( PAPP-A and free beta-hCG ) ( SS group ) .
254
The median free beta-hCG level in affected pregnancies was 1.79 times the median level for unaffected pregnancies , and the median PAPP-A level was 0.43 times the normal median .
255
The best predictive models for fetal birth weight included UtA-PI , PAPP-A , NT , parity , maternal age , smoking status , weight , height and free BETA-hCG .
256
The median percentage change of free BETA-hCG and PAPP-A concentrations in Uncooled samples relative to Cooled samples were 2.72% ( range 027-764% ) and 1.10% ( range 003%-429% ) , respectively .
257
To examine the relationship between newborn birth weight and first-trimester uterine artery ( UtA ) pulsatility index ( PI ) , maternal characteristics , serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) , free BETA-human chorionic gonadotropin ( BETA-hCG ) and fetal nuchal translucency ( NT ) thickness .
258
In the trisomy 21 group there was a small but significant association with PAPP-A ( r = +01028 ) but not with free beta-hCG ( r = +00339 ) .
259
The serum samples were stored at -80C , following the measurement of free BETA-human chorionic gonadotropin ( BETA-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) levels , for median time spans of 0.9 and 4.1 years in the euploid and trisomy 21 pregnancies , respectively .
260
To evaluate if levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) , free BETA-hCG and nuchal translucency ( NT ) used in first trimester aneuploidy screening and ALPHA-fetoprotein ( AFP ) , unconjugated oestriol ( UE3 ) and free BETA-hCG in the second trimester are altered in pregnancies with human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV ) infection .
261
The measured free beta-hCG and PAPP-A were converted into a multiple of the median ( MoM ) and then into likelihood ratios ( LR ) .
262
In contingent screening , a detection rate of 98% for trisomy 21 and 96% for trisomy 18 or 13 , at an invasive testing rate of 0.7% , can be achieved by carrying out cfDNA testing in about 35 , 20 and 11% of cases identified by first-line screening with the combined test alone ( age , NT , FHR , BETA-hCG , PAPP-A ) , the combined test plus PLGF and AFP and the combined test plus PLGF , AFP and DV PIV , respectively .
263
This was a multicenter study of screening for trisomy 21 by a combination of maternal age , fetal NT and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A at 11-14 weeks of gestation , using the methodology developed by the Fetal Medicine Foundation .
264
A retrospective analysis was carried out on the free beta human chorionic gonadotrophin ( beta-hCG ) and pregnancy associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) levels and nuchal translucency thickness in 49 653 women with a normal singleton fetus who had first trimester combined screening for Down Syndrome in three centres .
265
In 45 monochorionic and 135 dichorionic twin pregnancies the median MoM free beta-hCG was not significantly different ( 100 versus 101 ) , whilst that for PAPP-A was lower ( 089 versus 101 ) but again with no statistical significance .
266
In this study , we aim to measure the value of first-trimester maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A as predictors of homozygous alpha0-thalassemia-affected pregnancies .
267
In a group of 149 women who had undergone routine first trimester screening using fetal nuchal translucency thickness ( NT ) and maternal serum free beta-hCG and pregnancy associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) in two consecutive pregnancies the within person between pregnancy biological variability of these markers has been assessed .
268
There is no significant differences between estimated biochemistry standards ( PAPP-A and free beta-HCG ) for Polish population and literature reported data .
269
To investigate the effect of associations in serum free BETA-hCG and PAPP-A between successive pregnancies on the performance of screening for trisomy 21 at 11-13 weeks gestation .
270
Screening for triploidy by fetal nuchal translucency and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A at 10-14 weeks of gestation .
271
In Oriental women , the PAPP-A was increased by 9% and the free beta-hCG by 6% .
272
The first-trimester screen combines nuchal translucency measurement and serum levels ot PAPP-A and beta-hCG between 11 and 13 weeks gestational age which can be used to calculate the risk of fetal Trisomy 21 and 18 .
273
Of all markers evaluated for first-trimester biochemical screening for Down syndrome ( DS ) , PAPP-A and free beta-hCG emerged as the most predictive .
274
The medians +/- SD for delta NT , log ( 10 ) MoM of PAPP-A and free beta-hCG +/- SD in pregnancies with SLE and without maternal disease were - 0.18 +/- 0.29 versus - 0.18 +/- 0.33 , 0.005 +/- 0.32 versus 0.02 +/- 0.26 , and 0.22 +/- 0.19 versus - 0.014 +/- 0.28 , with a p value of 0.7 , 0.98 and 0.03 , respectively .
275
Prospective study evaluating performance of first-trimester combined screening for trisomy 21 using repeat sampling of maternal serum markers PAPP-A and free BETA-hCG .
276
For NT , 93% ( 43/46 ) of cases were equal to or greater than the 95th centile of controls , for PAPP-A 35% ( 16/46 ) of cases were less than or equal to the 5th centile of controls and for free beta-hCG 15% ( 7/46 ) of cases were equal to or greater than the 95th centile of controls .
277
[Noninvasive prenatal test in the first trimester of pregnancy ( NT and estimation of beta-hCG and PAPP-A ) in the diagnosis of fetal abnormalities in Polish population--comparison of the biochemistry own normal ranges and literature reported data] .
278
They were then analyzed to identify NT thresholds above or below which only positive ( high-risk ) or negative ( low-risk ) results were reported by a first trimester prenatal screening test combining PAPP-A , free beta-hCG and NT .
279
Risk algorithms were developed for the calculation of patient-specific risks for each of the three trisomies based on maternal age , NT , FHR , free beta-hCG and PAPP-A .
280
Although these particular serum markers are not useful during the first trimester , the fetoplacental secretory products-free beta-hCG and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) appear to be meaningful clinically when measured between 8 and 13 weeks of gestation , yielding similar first trimester detection rates as the current second trimester screening programme .
281
A longitudinal study of 2,178 women who underwent first-trimester evaluation of serum PAPP-A and free beta-hCG .
282
To evaluate whether first-trimester levels of PAPP-A and serum free-beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin ( free beta-hCG ) vary with maternal blood group and rhesus status and to assess whether this has implications for first-trimester screening for chromosomal anomalies .
283
Women with Rh-negative blood type have similar first-trimester serum PAPP-A MoM values as Rh-positive women , but significantly higher beta-hCG MoM values .
284
We included live singleton pregnancies at 11 0/7 to 13 6/7 weeks surviving to beyond 23 weeks of gestation with available measurements of free beta-hCG and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A .
285
Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the pregnancy characteristics that have a significant effect on the measured concentrations of free BETA-hCG and PAPP-A .
286
Of a total of 350 pregnancies in which fetal nuchal translucency and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A were performed were included in this study .
287
In the euploid fetuses the median free beta-hCG was 1.0 ( range , 01-294 ) multiples of the median ( MoM ) and the median PAPP-A was 1.0 ( range , 02-33 ) MoM .
288
In hydatidiform moles , beta-hCG levels are very high demonstrating an intense trophoblastic activity , whereas PAPP-A levels remain in the normal range .
289
In the first trimester group the PAPP-A serum concentrations were not different from the controls while the mean median concentration of free beta-hCG were significant higher--1.43 MoM .
290
For free beta-hCG , the sd was reduced from 0.2675 to 0.2605 and for PAPP-A , it was reduced from 0.2545 to 0.2336 .
291
The estimated risk for trisomy 21 based on maternal age , fetal NT and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A was 1 in 300 or greater in 5.1 % ( 362 of 6897 ) and 8 % ( 329 of 3840 ) of normal pregnancies , and in 78.9 % ( 15 of 19 ) and 88.5 % ( 23 of 26 ) of those with trisomy 21 .
292
Risk assessments for first trimester combined screening are derived from maternal age , ultrasound measurement of fetal NT , maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A .
293
The association of higher AEA levels with early pregnancy failure and with beta-hCG and PAPP-A , but not with progesterone concentrations suggest that plasma AEA levels and pregnancy failure are linked via a mechanism that may involve trophoblastic beta-hCG , and PAPP-A , but not , progesterone production .
294
Longer time-to-pregnancy in spontaneously conceived pregnancies is associated with lower PAPP-A and free BETA-hCG in first trimester screening for Down syndrome .
295
The estimated risk for trisomy 21 based on maternal age , fetal NT and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A was 1 in 300 or greater in 6.8% ( 967 of 14 240 ) normal pregnancies , in 91.5% ( 75 of 82 ) of those with trisomy 21 and in 88.5% ( 54 of 61 ) of those with other chromosomal defects .
296
Allowing for gestation and chorionicity , twin pregnancies affected with trisomy 21 had higher levels of free BETA-hCG and lower levels of PAPP-A .
297
Two first trimester maternal serum screening markers , pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) and free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin ( beta-hCG ) , are useful for identifying women at increased risk for fetal Down syndrome .
298
Inclusion of the nasal bone in the current first-trimester screening protocol along with nuchal translucency , free beta-hCG and PAPP-A can achieve high detection at a very low false-positive rate .
299
Discriminant analysis in 156 DS pregnancies and 546 controls defined three effective combinations of serum marker logMoMs ( multiples of the median in control samples ) in three gestational age windows , i.e. Index I ( weeks 7-9 ) = 0.52 logMoM ProMBP + 0.28 logMoM PAPP-A - logMoM SP(1) ; Index II ( weeks 10-12 ) = 1.94 logMoM free beta-hCG - logMoM SP(1) , and Index III ( weeks 15-19 ) = 0.78 logMoM free beta-hCG + 1.12 logMoM ProMBP - logMoM AFP .
300
For maternal serum free beta-hCG MoM a significant correlation was observed ( r = 04174 ) as was also found for PAPP-A MoM ( r = 03270 ) .
301
To examine the effect of bias in median multiples of the median ( MoM ) levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) and free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin ( BETA-hCG ) on first-trimester combined screening for trisomy 21 .
302
The aim of this study were to determine value and the medians of free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin ( beta-hCG ) and pregnancy associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) and nuchal translucency thickness in the first trimester in a prospective study of a non-selected Polish population .
303
Screening for trisomy 21 by a combination of maternal age , fetal nuchal translucency ( NT ) thickness and maternal serum free beta-hCG and pregnancy associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) at 11-13 ( +6 ) weeks of gestation is associated with a detection rate of 90% , for a false-positive rate of 5% .
304
Pregnancies with fetal NTDs were evaluated and their maternal serum levels of free beta-hCG and PAPP-A were compared with those of the normal control pregnancies .
305
The geometric means of chromosomally normal twin pregnancies were 1.85 MoM for free beta-hCG and 2.36 MoM for PAPP-A .
306
In case of each pregnant woman we estimated biochemical markers in the first ( PAPP-A + beta-hCG ) and second trimester ( AFP , beta-hCG , uE3 - triple test ) .
307
The aim of this study was to investigate whether subfertility , measured as longer time-to-pregnancy ( TTP ) in spontaneously conceived pregnancies , affects the first trimester levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) and free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin ( BETA-hCG ) and hence the risk estimates in Down syndrome screening .
308
73.7 per cent for all three markers ; 69.1 per cent for PAPP-A and free beta-hCG ; 47.4 per cent for PAPP-A and AFP ; 57.6 per cent for free beta-hCG and AFP .
309
To assess the effectiveness of free beta-hCG , pregnancy-associated plasma protein A , and nuchal translucency in a prospective first-trimester prenatal screening study for Down syndrome and trisomy 18 .
310
In trisomy 21 pregnancies the mean log MoM free BETA-hCG increased linearly with gestation between 7 and 14 weeks , whereas the relation between log MoM PAPP-A and gestation was fitted by a quadratic equation such that the maximum separation between trisomy 21 and unaffected pregnancies occurs at 9-10 weeks .
311
To examine the effectiveness of first-trimester fetal trisomy 21 screening using a combination of maternal age , nuchal translucency thickness ( NT ) and maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin ( beta-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) levels in a predominantly Chinese population in Hong Kong .
312
NT , free beta-HCG and PAPP-A values of the control cases were not significantly different from local standards evaluated on 3043 cases .
313
This was a multicenter study of prospective screening for trisomy 21 by a combination of fetal nuchal translucency thickness , and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A at 11 + 0 to 13 + 6 weeks of gestation .
314
To investigate the potential utility of first trimester screening for Down syndrome using Free beta-hCG , total hCG and PAPP-A .
315
Despite the limited performance of the NT measurement , the overall detection rate for a trisomy 21 was 90.8 % when combining the NT with maternal age , PAPP-A and free BETA-hCG .
316
Maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin ( beta-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) have been used effectively in the screening of Down syndrome in the first trimester .
317
Performance of free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin ( free beta-hCG ) and pregnancy associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) analysis between Delfia Xpress and AutoDelfia systems in The Netherlands .
318
Analysis showed that the area under a receiver operating characteristic curve ( AUC ) is 0.716 , 0.820 , and 0.936 for free BETA-hCG MoM , PAPP-A MoM , and fetal nuchal translucency , respectively .
319
Maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A were measured using the Kryptor rapid random-access immunoassay analyser ( Brahms Diagnostica GmbH , Berlin ) .
320
The 5th , 50th and 95th centile of PAPP-A and free beta-hCG during 11-14 weeks of gestation were 1.54-69 , 14-28 , 51-57 and 24.8-17 , 78-47 , 181.6-126.5 mIU/mL , respectively .
321
First trimester screening for Downs syndrome using maternal serum PAPP-A and free beta-hCG in combination with fetal nuchal translucency thickness .
322
Ethnic Chinese have a significantly higher maternal serum level of free beta-hCG and PAPP-A in the first trimester , which could not be explained by differences in maternal weight .
323
We studied the first trimester PAPP-A , free beta-human chorionic gonadatropin ( beta-hCG ) and nuchal translucency levels in 56,024 normal , singleton pregnancies with known fetal sex at birth .
324
Low levels of maternal serum PAPP-A and free beta-hCG and increased fetal NT are associated , in the absence of an abnormal karyotype , with an increased risk of impending fetal death .
325
Fetal NT and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A were successfully measured in all cases .
326
The adjusted prevalences of FGR and SGA among women with simultaneous low first-trimester values of PAPP-A and free beta-hCG were 0.21 ( 95% CI 013-033 ) and 0.26 ( 95% CI 017-036 ) , respectively .
327
There were significant gestational age-dependent effects attributed to Afro-Caribbean race , smoking and conception through in-vitro fertilization ( IVF ) on PAPP-A and free BETA-hCG levels .
328
On average , free beta-hCG was increased by 10% in a subsequent pregnancy after aneuploidy ( p < 0005 , Wilcoxon rank sum test ) and for PAPP-A the increase was 15% ( p < 00001 ) .
329
We calculated multiples of the median ( MoM ) for maternal-serum free beta human chorionic gonadotropin ( free beta-hCG ) and pregnancy associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) , derived from either last menstrual period ( LMP ) or ultrasound-dating scans .
330
 To determine the influence of type 1 diabetes mellitus ( T1DM ) on the first trimester serum markers of fetal aneuploidy ; pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) and free beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin ( free BETA-hCG ) and to evaluate the influence of glycemic control on these parameters in the pregnant diabetic women.  Retrospective study.  Data were extracted from electronic obstetric and laboratory databases at two Danish University Hospitals.  Based on 36 415 pregnancies without T1DM ( non-T1DM ) and 331 pregnancies with T1DM ; BETA-hCG and PAPP-A were obtained at 8+0 to 14+2 gestational weeks.  Medians for PAPP-A and free BETA-hCG were generated and multiple of the normal gestation-specific median ( MoM ) values were calculated for each separate pregnancy .
331
ADAM 12 was correlated with maternal weight ( r ( controls ) = 0.283 ) , PAPP-A ( r ( controls ) = 0.324 , r ( DS ) = 0.251 ) but less so with free beta-hCG ( r ( controls ) = 0.062 , r ( DS ) = 0.049 ) and delta NT ( r ( controls ) = 0.110 , r ( DS ) = 0.151 ) .
332
Maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein ( MSAFP ) concentrations were significantly higher in women with fetal Hb Barts disease than those with unaffected fetuses ( median 9953 versus 5083 , P < 0001 ) , whereas the concentrations of free BETA-hCG and PAPP-A were not significantly different between the two groups ( P = 0543 and 0777 , respectively ) .
333
The dependency of the serum parameters free BETA-HCG and PAPP-A on maternal weight was analyzed in the sample of negative outcomes by means of nonlinear regression .
334
The effects of deviations in the MoM levels of free BETA-hCG and PAPP-A were investigated by simulating nuchal translucency ( NT ) at 12 weeks and MoM values for PAPP-A and free BETA-hCG for 500 000 euploid and 500 000 trisomy 21 pregnancies at 9 and at 12 weeks of gestation .
335
Is there an association between maternal ABO and rhesus blood groups and the first-trimester serum markers free beta-hCG and PAPP-A used for the detection of fetal aneuploidy ?
336
Twin pregnancy showed significant increases in MoM values of free beta-hCG ( by 187-fold ) and PAPP-A ( by 224-fold ) , with no significant changes in fetal NT MoM values .
337
In the trisomy 18 group there was a significant association between PIGF and free beta-hCG ( r = +02629 ) but not with PAPP-A ( r = +00038 ) .
338
Plasma levels of alpha-fetoprotein ( AFP ) , pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) and free human chronic gonadotrophin beta-subunit ( beta-hCG ) were compared with those in maternal serum .
339
Though spontaneous reduction was not associated with different levels of either analyte , reduction within 4 weeks was associated with higher levels of both PAPP-A ( 179 versus 118 ; P = 002 ) and free beta-hCG ( 128 versus 096 ; P = 03 ) compared with other pregnancies .
340
Risk assessment for chromosomal abnormality was carried out in 4702 pregnancies using a combination of ultrasound markers ( fetal nuchal translucency thickness ( NT ) and nasal bone assessment ) and biochemistry ( free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin ( BETA-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) ) at 11 to 13 + 6 weeks .
341
Roche cobas e 601ECLIA ( electrochemiluminescence immunoassay ) was used to measure MoM of serum PAPP-A and Roche cobas e 602 ECLIA ( electrochemiluminescence immunoassay ) was used to measure MoM of serum free BETA-hCG in the first trimester .
342
Down syndrome screening was performed using a combination of maternal age , fetal nuchal translucency , and maternal serum concentrations of free beta-hCG and PAPP-A during the period of 10-14 weeks gestation .
343
Maternal weight correction in the first trimester using free beta-hCG and PAPP-A can be best achieved using the log-linear procedure .
344
We aimed to detect whether maternal serum free BETA-hCG and PAPP-A levels and NT measurements vary between normal pregnancies and those that subsequently develop pre-eclampsia and to evaluate the role of these screening serum analytes in the prediction of pre-eclampsia .
345
The distribution of maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A in chromosomally abnormal fetuses with absent and present nasal bone was examined .
346
Compared with nonsmoking women , fetal NT was significantly increased and free beta-hCG and PAPP-A levels were significantly decreased in both cigarette and sheesha smokers .
347
There were no significant differences in geometric mean MoM free beta-hCG and PAPP-A between pregnancies with an early ( gestational week <9 , EVT ) or late vanishing twin ( gestational week 9-13 , LVT ) or singleton pregnancies ( 098 , 113 and 095 for free beta-hCG and 084 , 080 and 074 for PAPP-A , respectively ) .
348
To investigate the effect of temperature on first trimester free BETA-hCG and PAPP-A in serum during transportation .
349
Detection rates ( DR ) and false-positive rates ( FPR ) for the NT screening , the double test ( beta-hCG and PAPP-A ) and the combined test ( NT and the double test ) were calculated using a 1 :
350
In digynic triploidy , free beta-hCG was 0.16 ( range 002-095 ) MoM and PAPP-A was 0.06 ( range 002-047 ) MoM and the respective values for diandric triploidy were 8.74 ( range 283-470 ) and 0.74 ( range 032-151 ) MoM .
351
The measured free beta-hCG and PAPP-A were converted into a multiple of the median ( MoM ) for gestational age , adjusted for maternal weight , ethnicity , smoking status , method of conception and parity , and a likelihood ratio was subsequently calculated .
352
In contrast with the maternal serum analytes used in second-trimester screening--alpha-fetoprotein and human chorionic gonadotropin--this study showed that concentrations of PAPP-A and free beta-hCG in the first trimester were not associated with subsequent fetal growth retardation or preterm delivery .
353
In the pre-eclampsia group the median PAPP-A MoM was significantly reduced ( 0772 MoM , p < 00001 ) whilst the median free beta-hCG MoM was not different from controls ( 0981 MoM , p = 026 ) .
354
Of the markers associated with trisomy 18 at this time PAPP-A was the most discriminatory , being lower than the 5 per cent centile of normal in 93 per cent of cases , compared with 57 per cent of cases for free beta-hCG and 32 per cent of cases for AFP .
355
The performance of screening using maternal age and serum-free beta-hCG and PAPP-A at 10 weeks of pregnancy was better than the double test ( alpha-fetoprotein and hCG with maternal age ) and similar to the triple test ( alpha-fetoprotein , unconjugated oestriol and hCG with maternal age ) at 15-22 weeks .
356
In women with a second empty gestational sac , the median free beta-hCG and PAPP-A MoMs ( 0968 and 1040 , respectively ) were not significantly different from the 1.0 MoM in singleton pregnancies .
357
To determine the value of serum screening for Downs syndrome at 8-14 weeks of pregnancy using seven potential serum markers ( alpha-fetoprotein , unconjugated oestriol , total human chorionic gonadotrophin ( hCG ) , free alpha-hCG , free beta-hCG , pregnancy associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) , and dimeric inhibin A ) .
358
The present study focused on measurements of beta-hCG and PAPP-A in the sera of women with Rh-negative blood group .
359
First-trimester screening for Down syndrome using nuchal translucency measurement with free beta-hCG and PAPP-A between 10 and 13 weeks of pregnancy--the combined test .
360
The estimated risk for trisomy 21 based on maternal age , fetal NT and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A was 1 in 300 or greater in 6.6% ( 233 of 3505 ) of normal pregnancies , in 84.2% ( 16 of 19 ) of those with trisomy 21 and 88.9% ( 24 of 27 ) of those with other chromosomal defects .
361
For our population of pregnant women , the best gestational week to determine free beta-hCG and PAPP-A would be week 11 in which the best discrimination was found between affected and non affected fetuses for the three trisomies researched .
362
Maternal serum biochemistry alone ( PAPP-A and beta-hCG or alpha-fetoprotein , estriol and beta-hCG ) detects about 65% of aneuploid pregnancies .
363
Prenatal screening for trisomy 21 was by a combination of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein ( AFP ) and free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin ( beta-hCG ) in the second trimester and by maternal serum free beta-hCG and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) and fetal nuchal translucency ( NT ) thickness in the first trimester .
364
However , a 15% closer approximation to the laboratory median for PAPP-A and a 10% closer approximation to the laboratory median for free BETA-hCG was evident in twins when compared to the reference group .
365
Chorionicity-specific medians were generated for PAPP-A and free BETA-hCG from gestational ages 8 to 14 weeks .
366
This two-step second trimester screening will be of value for patients who have not been included in first trimester screening based on nuchal translucency ( NT ) measurement combined with the first trimester markers , PAPP-A and free beta-hCG .
367
It was the aim of this study to investigate the pregnancy characteristics that influence the measured concentrations of maternal serum-free BETA-human chorionic gonadotropin ( BETA-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) at 9 ( +0 ) -13 ( +6 ) weeks gestation .
368
When HhCG was combined together with fetal NT , PAPP-A and maternal age , at a 5% false-positive rate the modeled detection rate was 83% , some 6% lower than when free beta-hCG was used and some 4% better than when ThCG was used .
369
Fetal NT and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A were successfully measured in all cases .
370
The median +/- SD ( log ( 10 ) ) for delta-NT , multiple of medians ( MoM ) PAPP-A and MoM free beta-hCG ( corrected for maternal weight , smoking and ethnicity ) was - 0.17 +/- 0.62 , 1.10 +/- 0.28 , 1.1 +/- 0.28 and - 0.15 +/- 0.51 , 0.98 +/- 0.26 , 0.94 +/- 0.3 in pregnancies with and without a history of early vaginal bleeding , which were not significantly different .
371
There was a significant relation between low PAPP-A MoM , low beta-hCG MoM , increased risk estimate for DS and low birth weight and SGA .
372
In singleton pregnancies attending for routine care , serum PLGF , free BETA-hCG and PAPP-A were measured at 8 ( +0 ) -13 ( +6 ) weeks gestation , and fetal NT was measured at 11 ( +0 ) -13 ( +6 ) weeks .
373
Fetal nuchal translucency thickness ( fetal NT ) , maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin ( free beta-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) were measured at 11 weeks 0 days to 13 weeks 6 days of gestation in all women .
374
In the unaffected population , the median free beta-hCG MoM was significantly lower in the smoking group ( 097 versus 100 ) as was that for PAPP-A ( 084 versus 102 ) .
375
Preliminary evidence suggests that first-trimester uterine artery Doppler measurements do not correlate with maternal serum levels of free beta-hCG and PAPP-A .
376
Maternal blood levels of beta-HCG- , PLAC4 - and PAPP-A mRNAs are not useful markers for the screening of pregnancies with trisomy 21 as their concentrations are either not significantly altered ( beta-HCG and PLAC4 ) or too low to be detected ( PAPP-A ) .
377
The greatest differences between patients at low risk and those at high risk for trisomy 21 were found in their PAPP-A ( 098 vs. 038 MoM , P < 001 ) and beta-hCG ( 109 vs. 177 MoM , P = 004 ) values .
378
The within-run precision with buffer-based calibrators was below 8% over the working range of PAPP-A ( 40-10000 mIU/l ) and beta-hCG ( 73-525 micrograms/l ) and no hook effect was observed .
379
The average within person biological variation for free beta-hCG was 21% and 32% for PAPP-A .
380
Maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A were measured by Kryptor , a random access immunoassay analyzer using time-resolved amplified cryptate emission , in 210 singleton pregnancies with trisomy 21 and 946 chromosomally normal controls , matched for maternal age , gestation and sample storage time .
381
At 12 weeks , the multivariate detection rates at a 5% false-positive rate for nuchal translucency and PAPP-A ( with maternal age ) with either free beta-hCG , total hCG , or inhibin A were 84% , 83% , and 85% , respectively .
382
The difference in the median multiple of the median ( MoM ) values in smokers compared to non-smokers was determined for NT , PAPP-A and free beta-hCG in 12,517 unaffected pregnancies that had routine first trimester Combined test screening .
383
Maternal serum ADAM12 concentration at 11-13 weeks of gestation is unlikely to be useful in first-trimester screening for chromosomal abnormalities because in trisomy 21 the levels are not significantly different from normal , and in the other chromosomal defects , there is a significant association between ADAM12 and the traditional biochemical markers of free beta-hCG and PAPP-A .
384
In first-trimester biochemical screening for trisomy 21 it is essential to adjust the measured values of free beta-hCG and PAPP-A for maternal and pregnancy characteristics .
385
A cohort of Saudi women ( first cohort n = 1616 ) with singleton pregnancies prospectively participated in the present study , and fetal NT together with maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A were determined at 10 to 13 ( +6 ) weeks of gestation .
386
Logistic regression identified independent associations between spontaneous reduction and both high PAPP-A and high free beta-hCG .
387
Future strategies for Downs syndrome screening may include the use of new markers such as dimeric inhibin-A and urinary beta-core fragment of hCG , as well as first-trimester screening , particularly with PAPP-A and free beta-hCG .
388
These findings suggest that first trimester biochemical screening for trisomy 21 , which is currently optimised using maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A and fetal nuchal translucency , will not benefit from the inclusion of inhibin A .
389
To examine early fetal growth , pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) and free BETA-human chorionic gonadotropin ( BETA-hCG ) in relation to the risk of delivering a small-for-gestational age ( SGA ) infant .
390
Early prediction of fetuses being SGA is feasible with the combination of first trimester PAPP-A , beta-hCG and ADAM12 .
391
In type I triploidy there was increased fetal NT ( 276 MoM ) , maternal serum total hCG ( 491 MoM ) , free beta-hCG ( 804 MoM ) , and AFP ( 322 MoM ) , and mildly decreased PAPP-A ( 075 MoM ) .
392
The fetal fraction in maternal plasma cfDNA increases with serum PAPP-A and free BETA-hCG and decreases with maternal weight .
393
There was almost no correlation between reduced levels ( PAPP-A and reduced levels of free beta-hCG in either the normal pregnancy group ( r = 0041 ) or the group with fetal death ( r = 0072 ) , indicating relatively independent prediction by either biochemical marker .
394
Serum macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 , PAPP-A , anandamide , and BETA-hCG concentrations were assayed .
395
Europium ( Eu ) and Samarium ( Sm ) chelates were conjugated to two additional monoclonal antibodies acting as detection antibodies for PAPP-A and beta-hCG .
396
Pregnancy loss rates in women with various levels of PAPP-A , free beta-hCG , or nuchal translucency ( less than 1st , less than 5th , more than 95th , and more than 99th percentile ) were compared with losses in women with normal values ( 5th to 95th percentile ) .
397
Maternal weight correction of maternal serum PAPP-A and free beta-hCG MoM when screening for trisomy 21 in the first trimester of pregnancy .
398
The median shift observed for AFP and total hCG is poorer than that for pregnancy associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) or free beta-hCG and together with maternal age , AFP and total hCG could only be expected to detect 40% of cases .
399
To derive a model and examine the performance of first-trimester screening for trisomy 18 by maternal age , fetal nuchal translucency ( NT ) thickness , and maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin ( beta-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) .
400
Ductus venosus flow provides an independent contribution in the prediction of chromosomal abnormalities when combined with NT and the maternal serum markers of PAPP-A and free beta-hCG , increasing the detection rate to 96% at a false-positive rate of 2.6% .
401
Previous studies have shown an association between low first trimester maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A and subsequent development of pregnancy complications .
402
In Eastern and Northern Finland , during the year 1999 we offered first-trimester ultrasonographic and serum screening for trisomy 21 , with measurements of maternal serum PAPP-A and beta-hCG .
403
Using a previously derived multivariate risk algorithm for trisomy 21 , incorporating NT , PAPP-A , free beta-hCG and maternal age , 96% of the Turners cases and 62% of the other sex chromosomal anomalies would have been identified .
404
Analysis of the impact of PAPP-A , free BETA-hCG and nuchal translucency thickness on the advanced first trimester screening .
405
To evaluate the modeled predictive value of three current screening markers ( pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) , free BETA-human chorionic gonadotropin ( free BETA-hCG ) , and nuchal translucency ( NT ) ) and four potential screening markers ( a disintegrin and metalloprotease 12 ( ADAM12 ) , total hCG , placental protein 13 ( PP13 ) , and placental growth factor ( PlGF ) ) for Down syndrome using different screening strategies .
406
We have studied changes in first trimester fetal nuchal translucency ( NT ) and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A with gravidity and parity in 3252 singleton pregnancies unaffected by chromosomal abnormality or major pregnancy complications .
407
For a 5% false-positive rate , the sensitivities are approximately 30% for maternal age alone , 60-70% for maternal age and second-trimester maternal serum biochemical testing , 75% for maternal age and first-trimester fetal nuchal translucency ( NT ) scanning , and 90% for maternal age with fetal NT and maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin ( beta-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) at 11-14 weeks .
408
The first trimester prenatal combined screening test for fetal aneuploidies in pregnancies conceived following assisted reproduction techniques ( ART ) is complicated by an alteration of the maternal biomarkers free BETA-hCG and PAPP-A , causing a higher false-positive rate compared with pregnancies which are conceived naturally .
409
The association between free beta-hCG , PAPP-A and delta NT and the incidence of preterm delivery before 37 weeks or early preterm delivery before 34 weeks was assessed by comparing the relative incidence at a number of MoM or delta NT cut-offs and at various centile cut-offs .
410
Multiple regression modelling of log10 -transformed marker concentrations was used to produce log10 multiple of the median ( MoM ) values for free BETA-hCG and PAPP-A and to examine pregnancy characteristics that have significant effects on marker concentrations .
411
Chromosomal defect markers ( NT NB , DV TV ) were analyzed in the first genetic test , performed according to the Fetal Medicine Foundation ( FMF ) criteria , and the double marker test was performed ( PAPP-A protein and free beta-hCG concentrations in patient serum were determined ) .
412
The aim of this study was to investigate gestational age-dependent effects of racial origin , smoking status and mode of conception on maternal serum levels of free BETA-human chorionic gonadotropin ( BETA-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) at 7-14 weeks gestation .
413
First Trimester Maternal Serum Screening Using Biochemical Markers PAPP-A and Free BETA-hCG for Down Syndrome , Patau Syndrome and Edward Syndrome .
414
In the intracytoplasmic sperm injection group , fetal NT and free beta-HCG values were not significantly different from those in controls , but PAPP-A was significantly decreased .
415
Cigarette and sheesha smoking significantly affect first-trimester markers of Down syndrome ( fetal NT , free beta-hCG and PAPP-A ) .
416
The median pregnancy associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) in this trisomy 21 series was 0.49 and for free beta-hCG was 2.05 .
417
The present paper compares the plasma concentrations of PAPP-A with the levels of two trophoblastic proteins , human placental lactogen ( hPL ) and the beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotrophin ( beta-hCG ) , with a steroid of fetoplacental origin , total oestriol ( total E3 ) , and with a fetal protein , alpha-fetoprotein ( AFP ) .
418
In combined first-trimester screening for trisomy 21 , use of early sampling with measurement of PAPP-A and free BETA-hCG before the time of the NT scan can optimize screening performance .
419
A multicentre study ( the first trimester serum screening study ) has shown that there are two biochemical markers of choice at this time in pregnancy , namely pregnancy associated placental protein A ( PAPP-A ) and the free beta-sub-unit of human chorionic gonadotrophin ( free beta-hCG ) .
420
In this study , we analyzed detection and false-positive rates of screening for aneuploidies in the first trimester by the combination of maternal age , fetal nuchal translucency ( NT ) thickness and maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin ( beta-hCG ) , and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) at 11-13+6 weeks of gestation , using the appropriate software developed by the Fetal Medicine Foundation .
421
The concentrations of free beta-hCG and PAPP-A in maternal serum were determined by solid-phase , enzyme-labeled chemiluminiscent immunometric assay ( Siemens Immulite ) .
422
Maternal serum free beta-hCG , PAPP-A and fetal NT were measured in 9762 women presenting for first-trimester combined screening for Down syndrome at 11 to 14 weeks of gestation .
423
The means of the MoMs of the poor responders and normoresponders were 1.16 +/- 0.45 and 1.04 +/- 0.32 ( P  =  0111 ) for nuchal translucency , 0.92 +/- 0.48 and 0.89 +/- 0.61 ( P  =  0399 ) for PAPP-A , and 1.08 +/- 0.40 and 1.21 +/- 0.95 ( P  =  0831 ) for BETA-hCG , respectively .
424
To derive a model and examine the performance of first-trimester combined screening by maternal age , fetal nuchal translucency ( NT ) thickness and maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin ( beta-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) .
425
The detection rates , as well as the median multiples of a median ( MOMs ) of free BETA-human chorionic gonadotropin ( free BETA-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) , were compared between completed gestational weeks 8-13 and between different maternal ages separated into 5-year groupings .
426
Analyzing maternal serum beta-hCG and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A levels increases the accuracy of 1st trimester screening .
427
The proportion of EVT pregnancies with a PAPP-A and free beta-hCG log ( 10 ) MoM value below the 5th%iles and above the 95th%iles of the value in the singleton pregnancies were 4.3% , 4.3% , 6.4% and 8.5% , respectively , which did not constitute a significant difference from singletons .
428
The fetal aneuploidy screening database of General Medical Laboratory AML in Antwerp was searched for 2MSS tests between 1992 and 1999 ( alpha-fetoprotein , beta-human chorionic gonadotropin ( beta-HCG ) and unconjugated estriol , cut-off 1 : 300 ) and for 1MSS tests between 1999 and 2003 ( free beta-HCG and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A , cut-off 1 : 85 ) .
429
The overall median weight corrected , ethnicity corrected , smoking corrected and IVF corrected MoM amongst twin pregnancies were 2.023 for free beta-hCG ( sd log ( 10 ) MoM = 0.2611 and 2.121 for PAPP-A ( sd log ( 10 ) MoM = 02255 ) - - both medians were significantly greater than the medians in singleton pregnancies ( 100 MoM ) .
430
The median multiple of the median AFP in the cases were not significantly different from the controls ( 092 versus 106 p  =  03511 ) as was the case for free BETA-hCG ( 087 versus 095 p  =  07146 ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A ( 104 versus 104 p  =  0261 ) .
431
In this prospective study , three-dimensional ( 3D ) volumes of the fetal head were obtained from 500 pregnancies before fetal karyotyping by chorionic villus sampling ( CVS ) , after screening by fetal nuchal translucency ( NT ) thickness and maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin ( beta-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) at 11 + 0 to 13 + 6 weeks .
432
The predicted detection rates of pre-eclampsia , for a false positive rate of 5% , was 50% by uterine artery mean PI , 5% by PAPP-A , 10% by free beta-hCG , 35% by inhibin A and 44% by activin A .
433
We demonstrate an excellent agreement for the analysis of PAPP-A and free beta-hCG between Delfia Xpress systems and one AutoDelfia system .
434
In dichorionic twins , mean crown-rump length ( CRL ) was 63.9 mm ; median NT multiples of the median ( MoM ) was 0.97 ; median BETA-hCG was MoM 1.74 ; median PAPP-A was 1.72 .
435
The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the combined test ( nuchal translucency , NT ) and maternal serum free-beta human chorionic gonadotropin ( free beta-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) , compared to the NT measurement alone , in fetal aneuploidy screening in the general population and in pregnant women aged 35 years and over .
436
The median-corrected free BETA-hCG and PAPP-A , expressed as MoM , and fetal NT , expressed as delta values , in the IDDM and non-IDDM groups were compared .
437
The data for this study were derived from prospective screening for trisomy 21 in singleton pregnancies , using , as markers , a combination of maternal age , fetal NT thickness and maternal-serum free BETA-human chorionic gonadotropin ( BETA-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) , in a one-stop clinic for first-trimester assessment of risk at 11 + 0 to 13 + 6 weeks of gestation .
438
The aim of this study was to demonstrate that the variability of the FPR can be reduced through adjusting the concentrations of free BETA-HCG and PAPP-A measured in the maternal serum by means of a nonlinear regression function modeling the dependence of these values on maternal weight .
439
The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the relation between perinatal complications in twin pregnancies and the combination of first-trimester maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) and free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin ( BETA-hCG ) levels .
440
All women had a scan for nuchal translucency ( NT ) and had blood taken for measurement of maternal serum PAPP-A and free beta-hCG level .
441
Screening in the first trimester of pregnancy ( between 10 and 13 weeks of pregnancy ) is possible using two biochemical markers ( PAPP-A and free beta-hCG ) together with an ultrasound marker nuchal translucency measurement ; using these three markers together with maternal age can identify 85% of affected pregnancies , with a 5% false-positive rate .
442
There was a significant inverse relationship between the number of cigarettes per day and the level of PAPP-A MoM ( r = 0989 , p < 00001 ) but not the level of free beta-hCG MoM ( r = 0733 ; p = 0098 ) .
443
Maternal serum HhCG levels were not correlated with fetal NT but showed significant correlation with ThCG and free beta-hCG and with PAPP-A in the Down syndrome group ( r = 0536 ) .
444
The corresponding median pregnancy associated plasma protein ( PAPP-A ) was 0.30 and free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin ( beta-hCG ) 2.02 .
445
The modeled detection rates of trisomy 21 for fixed false positive rates of 1% , 2% and 5% in screening by maternal age , fetal NT thickness and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A and assessment of tricuspid flow in all cases were 87% , 90% and 95% .
446
Serum concentrations of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) , free BETA-human chorionic gonadotropin ( BETA-hCG ) , A disintegrin and metalloprotease domain-containing protein-12 ( ADAM-12 ) , placental protein-13 ( PP-13 ) and placental growth factor ( PlGF ) levels were measured in thawed specimens using an automated time-resolved fluorescence assay .
447
In 8,499 women with two consecutive pregnancies , including 49 women with fetal trisomy 21 in the second pregnancy , the correlation in serum free BETA-hCG multiples of the median ( MoM ) and PAPP-A MoM between pregnancies was determined , and the effects of correcting for the correlation on the performance of screening was estimated .
448
There were no significant differences in median maternal age , median gestational age , NT delta , free beta-hCG MoM and PAPP-A MoM in trisomy 21 fetuses with and without a visible nasal bone .
449
To evaluate the influence of maternal insulin dependent diabetes mellitus ( IDDM ) on maternal serum free beta-hCG , PAPP-A and fetal nuchal translucency ( NT ) , thickness at 11 to 13 ( +6 ) weeks of gestation in a large cohort of women screened prospectively for chromosomal anomalies .
450
Effective screening for trisomies can be achieved using specific algorithms based on NT , FHR , DV PIV , BETA-hCG , PAPP-A , PLGF and AFP. COPYRIGHT 2013 S .
451
To establish the relationship between the first-trimester screening markers [pregnancy-associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) , free human chorionic gonadotrophin-beta ( beta-hCG ) , nuchal translucency ( NT ) ] , the Down syndrome ( DS ) risk estimate , and the adverse outcomes such as low birth weight , small for gestational age ( SGA ) and pre-term delivery .
452
There was no correlation between the level of free BETA-hCG or PAPP-A and maternal viral load or CD4(+) count .
453
To evaluate whether repeat sampling and testing of free beta-hCG and PAPP-A during this period would result in an improved detection rate .
454
In first-trimester screening for Down syndrome by maternal serum PAPP-A and free beta-hCG the impact of correcting for the dose dependant rather than the all or nil effect of smoking is marginal .
455
To examine whether maternal Rhesus status has any effect on the levels of first-trimester markers free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin ( beta-hCG ) , pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) and nuchal translucency ( NT ) .
456
At 11-13 weeks , serum PlGF and PAPP-A , but not free BETA-hCG , were significantly lower in the PE group than in the controls ( 0824 , 0748 and 0857 vs. 1000 MoM ) .
457
To evaluate whether hyperemesis gravidarum ( HG ) affects first-trimester maternal serum PAPP-A and free BETA-hCG levels .
458
At present , the most effective trisomy 21-screening method is the estimate of risk combining maternal age , fetal nuchal translucency , beta-hCG and pregnancy-associated PAPP-A .
459
In the first trimester of pregnancy , maternal age , fetal nuchal translucency ( NT ) , maternal levels of free beta - human chorionic gonadotropin ( beta-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) are used as screening markers .
460
Maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A were measured using the Kryptor rapid random access immunoassay analyser ( Brahms Diagnostica AG , Berlin ) .
461
The levels of PlGF were compared in cases and controls , and were assessed for association with free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin ( beta-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) .
462
The measured free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin ( BETA-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) were converted into a multiple of the median ( MoM ) for gestational age , adjusted for maternal weight , smoking status , ethnicity , method of conception ( spontaneous or IVF ) and parity .
463
We conclude that a large proportion of triploidy cases of both phenotypes could be identified in the first trimester using NT , maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A with a combination of trisomy 21 risk and an atypicality approach .
464
There were no significant associations between extreme free beta-hCG or high PAPP-A values and the rates of any adverse outcomes .
465
In this study , we compare AEA levels in failed and viable pregnancies with the levels of the trophoblastic hormones ( beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin ( beta-hCG ) , progesterone ( P4 ) and ( pregnancy-associated placental protein-A ( PAPP-A ) ) essential for early pregnancy success and relate that to the expression of the cannabinoid receptors and enzymes that modulate AEA levels .
466
The variability of maternal serum biochemical markers for Down syndrome , free beta-hCG and PAPP-A can have a different impact on false-positive rates between the 10+0 and 13+6 week of gestation .
467
In the Netherlands , prenatal screening for trisomy 21 in the first trimester of pregnancy for singletons is conducted through a combined test based on maternal age , nuchal translucency measurement and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A .
468
First-trimester combined screening based on maternal and gestational age , fetal NT , PAPP-A and free BETA-hCG was assessed in 39  , 004 pregnancies .
469
The median beta-hCG level decreased significantly as gravidity and parity increased ; no effect was noted on PAPP-A .
470
In a prospective study from March 2007 to June 2007 , three-dimensional ( 3D ) volumes of the fetal profile in the mid-sagittal plane were recorded from 129 Chinese pregnant women who were screened for trisomy 21 by the combination of fetal nuchal translucency ( NT ) thickness , maternal serum free BETA-human chorionic gonadotropin ( BETA-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) at 11 to 13 + 6 weeks. 3D volumes were examined using multiplanar techniques .
471
In cases of Turners syndrome ( 45 , X ) the median fetal NT was significantly higher than in controls ( 476 MoM ) , the median PAPP-A was significantly lower ( 049 MoM ) , whilst the free beta-hCG was not significantly different ( 111 MoM ) .
472
25 ( OH ) D levels were insufficient ( 20-2999 ng/ml ) and deficient ( <20 ng/ml ) in 40.6% and 23.2% , respectively , in relation to ethnics , body mass index values , tobacco use , and season/gestational age at blood sampling. BETA-hCG and PAPP-A levels significantly correlated ( r^2 = 047 ) yet neither of them with 25 ( OH ) D levels .
473
The median maternal weight corrected free beta-hCG and PAPP-A , expressed as multiple of the median ( MoM ) , and fetal NT , expressed as delta values , in the IDDM and non-IDDM groups were compared .
474
Recent NICE Guidelines have emphasized the need to have in place by 2007 the capability of offering screening to all women in the first trimester using a combination of maternal age with the ultrasound marker nuchal translucency thickness ( NT ) and the maternal serum biochemical markers free beta-hCG and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) .
475
However , the absence of ultrasound features of fetal anemia and hydropic changes , together with normal maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A in the first trimester , will be reassuring signs of normality for fetuses at risk of homozygous alpha0-thalassemia and , hence , enable women to avoid invasive tests in unaffected pregnancies .
476
Receiver operator characteristics ( ROC ) curves showed that the highest sensitivity for detection , 71.2 per cent ( 95 per cent CI 547-876 per cent ) , was for depressed PAPP-A levels ; the combination of low serum PAPP-A levels , maternal age , and elevated free beta-hCG levels yielded a detection rate of 78.9 per cent ( 95 per cent CI 649-928 per cent ) of the affected pregnancies at 8-12 weeks gestation .
477
The detection rate increased to 92% by measuring PAPP-A at 9 weeks and free BETA-hCG at the time of the scan at 12 weeks .
478
Women booked into the clinic were offered screening using a combination of maternal serum free beta-hCG and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) and fetal nuchal translucency thickness .
479
In 38% and 71% of cases of trisomy 13 maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A was below the 5th centile of the appropriate normal range for gestation and in 62% of cases the nuchal translucency was above the 95th centile .
480
It would be rational to use a combination of nasal and maxillary bone length measurements in case serum concentrations of PAPP-A or beta-HCG cannot be assessed .
481
Maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) and free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin ( beta-hCG ) are useful markers in the screening of Down syndrome in the first trimester .
482
For a fixed false-positive rate of 5% the respective detection rates of screening for trisomy 21 by maternal age alone , maternal age and serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A , maternal age and fetal NT , and by maternal age , fetal NT and maternal serum biochemistry were 30.5% , 59.8% , 79.3% and 90.2% , respectively .
483
This combined screening test ( CST1 ) was based on US measurements of NT ( nuchal translucency ) and NB ( nasal bones ) supplemented by biochemical markers of serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A .
484
To assess whether there is a need to correct first-trimester biochemical markers ( free beta-hCG and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) ) or first-trimester fetal nuchal translucency thickness ( NT ) in different ethnic groups , when screening for Downs syndrome at 11-14 weeks of gestation .
485
Screening parameters included nuchal translucency , maternal serum free BETA-human chorionic gonadotropin ( BETA-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) .
486
Using these parameters the expected detection rate for a 5 per cent false-positive rate for different marker combinations were : 55.3 per cent for PAPP-A and free beta-hCG ; 68.4 per cent for NT alone ; and 84.6 per cent for PAPP-A , free beta-hCG and NT .
487
AFP was measured with the Kryptor platform and free BETA-hCG and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A results were available from the fetal database .
488
For median MoM levels of free BETA-hCG and PAPP-A between 0.8 and 1.2 MoM , detection rates ranged from 77% to 91% , with corresponding false-positive rates ranging from 1.0% to 6.1% .
489
MoM < 5th percentile was defined as low PAPP-A or BETA-hCG and those > 90th percentile as high .
490
A first trimester trisomy 13/trisomy 18 risk algorithm combining fetal nuchal translucency thickness , maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A .
491
The fetal nuchal translucency serum concentrations of PAPP-A and free beta-HCG were measured .
492
Over the past three years approximately 12 000 women have been screened in the first trimester through our OSCAR programme , which utilizes fetal NT and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A .
493
Correlation with previously analysed markers ( PAPP-A , free beta-hCG and delta NT ) was performed .
494
To evaluate the ability of maternal serum-free BETA-human chorionic gonadotrophin ( BETA-hCG ) , pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) , and alpha fetoprotein ( AFP ) levels in the screening of fetuses with hemoglobin ( Hb ) Barts disease among pregnancies at risk .
495
The median free BETA-hCG was significantly reduced to 0.820 MoM ( P < 02 ) , but the median PAPP-A was similar in cases and controls .
496
Integrated ultrasound and biochemical screening for trisomy 21 using fetal nuchal translucency , absent fetal nasal bone , free beta-hCG and PAPP-A at 11 to 14 weeks .
497
The impact of fetal gender on first trimester nuchal translucency and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A MoM in normal and trisomy 21 pregnancies .
498
Performance of screening for aneuploidies by DV PIV alone and in combination with fetal nuchal translucency ( NT ) thickness and serum free BETA-hCG and PAPP-A was estimated .
499
To examine whether in pregnancies with fetal trisomy 21 the level of maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin ( beta-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) at 11 + 0 to 13 + 6 weeks gestation is independent of the presence or absence of tricuspid regurgitation and to estimate the performance of a screening test that combines tricuspid regurgitation with fetal nuchal translucency ( NT ) thickness and serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A .
500
1.06 NT ( 95% confidence interval 103 to 110 ) , 0.81 PAPP-A ( 080 to 083 ) and 0.94 free beta-hCG ( 089 to 099 ) .
501
Type I , characterized by extremely high levels of free beta-hCG and elevated NT ; and type II , characterized by very low levels of PAPP-A and free beta-hCG with normal NT .
502
The rates of false positivity were 10% for PAPP-A and 22% for f BETA-HCG .
503
We gathered information on maternal history , uterine artery Doppler and serum biomarkers ( PAPP-A , PlGF , PP-13 and free BETA-hCG ) .
504
To examine the performance of the new algorithm in screening for trisomy 21 by a combination of maternal age , fetal nuchal translucency ( NT ) and maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin ( beta-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) .
505
This study investigated the accuracy of Downs syndrome screening during gestational weeks 10 to 13 using the combination of fetal nuchal translucency ( NT ) measurement with maternal serum concentrations of free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin ( beta-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) .
506
Placental volume and vascularization flow indices by 3D power Doppler US using VOCAL technique and correlation with IGF-1 , free beta-hCG , PAPP-A , and uterine artery Doppler at 11-14 weeks of pregnancy .
507
Using the Kryptor immunoassay system , we measured free beta-hCG and PAPP-A in 32 singleton pregnancies affected by trisomy 13 between 14 and 20 weeks of gestation .
508
In the pre-eclampsia group , compared to the controls , the uterine artery mean PI and the maternal serum levels of PAPP-A , free beta-hCG , activin A and inhibin A were significantly increased .
509
In this study we looked at differences in early first-trimester free beta-hCG and PAPP-A between mono - and dichorionic twins .
510
Screening study in 1,536 SGA and 31,314 non-SGA pregnancies based on maternal characteristics , fetal nuchal translucency ( NT ) thickness , serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) and free BETA-human chorionic gonadotrophin ( BETA-hCG ) .
511
Determination of maternal serum free BETA-human chorionic gonadotropin ( BETA-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) was committed and concomitantly evaluated by blood sample .
512
The distribution of fetal NT , maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A in trisomy 21 fetuses with absent and present nasal bone was examined .
513
Spontaneous reduction was associated with a higher frequency of PAPP-A >95th %ile ( 171 versus 47% ; P = 003 ) and free beta-hCG >95th %ile ( 171% versus 50% ; P = 004 ) .
514
In affected cases , the value or level of NT and free beta-hCG were higher , while the level of PAPP-A was lower .
515
In monochorionic twins , mean CRL was 61.9 mm ; median NT MoM was 0. 98 ; median BETA-hCG MoM was 1.44 ; and median PAPP-A was 1.51 .
516
Prospective assessment of risk for trisomy 21 by a combination of maternal age , fetal NT thickness and maternal serum PAPP-A and free BETA-hCG at 11+0 to 13+6 weeks of gestation between April 2002 and February 2007 .
517
The study population consisted of 38  , 751 singleton pregnancies including 39 cases with trisomy 18 or 13. In the aneuploid group , median delta NT was 0.72 mm , PAPP-A was 0.21 MoM and free BETA-hCG was 0.33 MoM .
518
Maternal serum concentrations of free beta-hCG and PAPP-A were determined by microtiter-plate ELISA .
519
Multiple regression modeling of log-transformed marker values was used to produce log multiples of the median ( MoM ) values for PAPP-A and free BETA-hCG .
520
In south Asian women , the PAPP-A was increased by 8% and the free beta-hCG decreased by 7.5% .
521
To investigate the maternal serum concentration of human placental growth hormone ( hPGH ) in trisomy 21 and trisomy 18 pregnancies at 11 to 13 weeks of gestation and to examine the possible association between fetal nuchal translucency ( NT ) thickness and maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin ( beta-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) .
522
The objective was to examine the applicability of the two biochemical markers PAPP-A and free beta-hCG for fetal trisomy 21 ( T21 ) in very early pregnancy :
523
The odds ratios ( OR ) of adverse outcomes were analysed for combined risk incorporating maternal age , nuchal translucency ( NT ) and biochemical parameters and then separately for each parameter ( pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) , free beta human chorionic gonadotropin ( beta-hCG ) and NT ) .
524
There was no significant difference between the bleeding and non-bleeding group by median test ( p = 0080 ) or by t-test comparing log MoMs ( p = 01305 ) for free beta-hCG and for PAPP-A with median test ( p = 05071 ) or by t-test comparing log MoMs ( p = 01740 ) .
525
This study showed an association between newborn birth weight and maternal factors , and first-trimester PAPP-A , BETA-hCG , fetal NT and UtA-PI .
526
NT was measured according to the criteria set by The Fetal Medicine Foundation ( FMF ) , maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A levels were measured , and the risk of trisomy 21 was calculated using The FMFs algorithm .
527
In the SGA group , uterine artery PI and MAP were increased and serum PAPP-A , free BETA-hCG , PLGF , PP13 , and ADAM12 and fetal NT were decreased .
528
We examined singleton pregnancies with no chromosomal abnormality and with complete outcome data that had undergone screening for trisomy 21 by a combination of fetal nuchal translucency ( NT ) thickness and maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin ( beta-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) at 11 + 0 and 13 + 6 weeks gestation .
529
A significant association between the FNA and NT thickness was detected , while no significant association was found between FNA and serum PAPP-A or BETA-hCG .
530
The measured maternal free BETA-hCG and PAPP-A concentrations were converted into DoE 2007 and DoE 2011 values according to the algorithm of the FMF Germany and into MoM values according to the algorithm of the FMF UK .
531
The concentration of free beta-hCG was 17.2 IU/L , corresponding to 0.37 MoM and PAPP-A levels were 1.31 IU/L , corresponding to 0.82 MoM .
532
There were no statistically significant differences between the HIV-positive and HIV-negative women in the median maternal levels of free BETA-hCG , PAPP-A and fetal NT .
533
Fetal delta nuchal translucency ( NT ) , maternal serum PAPP-A and free beta-hCG were compared between pregnancies with SLE ( n = 10 ) and without preexisting maternal disease ( n = 1140 ) .
534
Estimation of Polish population standards of the concentrations of pregnancy-associated plasma protein--A ( PAPP-A ) and free beta--human chorionic gonadotropin ( beta-HCG ) in the maternal blood between 10.0 and 13.6 week of pregnancy and comparison of the biochemistry own normal ranges and literature reported data .
535
In our study population of different risk categories , the detection rate using the combined risk calculation based on maternal age , fetal NT , maternal PAPP-A and free beta-hCG levels was superior to the application of either parameter alone .
536
Combining nuchal translucency measurement with PAPP-A and free beta-hCG assay ( first trimester combined screening ) increases the sensitivity up to 82% .
537
Our results ( non-significant lower values of PAPP-A and significantly higher free beta-HCG values ) were consistent with other reported series .
538
In the trisomy 18 pregnancies the median values were 0.74 MoM for inhibin A , 1.23 MoM for activin A , 0.38 MoM for free beta-hCG and 0.16 MoM for PAPP-A .
539
In the first trimester of pregnancy the biochemical markers free beta-hCG and pregnancy associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) are used for the prenatal screening of trisomy 21 , either alone or in combination with nuchal translucency ( NT ) thickness .
540
Inhibin A levels in affected pregnancies were compared with levels of free beta-hCG and PAPP-A in the same series .
541
The nuchal translucency was increased to 3.8 mm , resulting in a post-test result of 1 : 15 risk for Down syndrome by a combination of maternal age plus nuchal translucency , and 1 : 5 by a combination of maternal age plus nuchal translucency plus free beta-hCG plus PAPP-A .
542
Although levels of free beta-hCG in affected pregnancies were higher earlier than the levels of either total hCG or inhibin A , there was no significant difference in screening performance when either of the three markers was used with nuchal translucency and PAPP-A at 11-13 weeks of pregnancy .
543
Women booked into the clinic were offered screening , using a combination of maternal serum free beta-hCG and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) and fetal nuchal translucency thickness .
544
We simulated the NT and multiples of the median values for pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) and free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin ( beta-hCG ) for 500 000 euploid and 500 000 trisomy 21 pregnancies at 12 weeks of gestation .
545
Subsequently , the totality of all values of free BETA-HCG and PAPP-A corrected for deviation from average weight were used as input data for carrying out the construction of diagnostic discrimination rules described in our recent paper for a database to which no corrections for over - or under-weight had been applied .
546
In this mixed trisomy group the median MoM NT was increased at 2.819 , whilst the median MoMs for free beta-hCG and PAPP-A were reduced at 0.375 and 0.201 respectively .
547
This study compares the circulating concentrations of PAPP-A and beta-hCG and progesterone in different pathological situations .
548
Concentrations of free beta-hCG and PAPP-A were expressed in multiples of the median ( MOM ) for gestational age .
549
AFP and total hCG are not likely to replace the markers free beta-hCG and PAPP-A in first trimester screening for chromosomal anomalies .
550
Standards for serum concentrations of PAPP-A and free beta-HCG in normal pregnancies were determined .
551
In the pregnancies subsequently found to have trisomy 21 and in those with no obvious chromosomal abnormality , we used multiple regression analysis to account for pregnancy characteristics that influence the measured concentrations of free beta-hCG and PAPP-A .
552
Fetal NT , crown-rump length , maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A were measured at 11-14 weeks of gestation .
553
The combined cases in the first trimester had a median free beta-hCG MoM of 0.58 ( 95% CI 0454-0668 ) and a median PAPP-A MoM of 0.26 ( 95% CI 0218-0320 ) .
554
To investigate the performance of first-trimester screening for aneuploidies by including assessment of the fetal nasal bone in the combined test of maternal age , fetal nuchal translucency ( NT ) thickness , fetal heart rate ( FHR ) and serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin ( beta-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) .
555
Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the addition of serum PP13 did not improve the prediction of trisomy 13 and 18 provided by a combination of maternal age , nuchal translucency , and serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A .
556
A group of 2110 pregnant women has been screened by maternal age as a background risk , fetal nuchal translucency , nasal bone as ultrasound markers as well as maternal serum level of free beta-subunit human chorionic gonadotropin ( beta-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) as a biochemical markers between 11 - 13+6 weeks of pregnancy from January 2004 to December 2005 .
557
This approach is unlikely to be better than the excellent detection rates achievable with free beta-hCG , PAPP-A and nuchal translucency in the first trimester .
558
There was a significant inverse association between the risk for SGA and maternal serum PAPP-A MoM but not free beta-hCG MoM .
559
In a study of 180 twin pregnancies I have examined the distribution of maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin ( beta-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) , in addition to fetal nuchal translucency thickness ( NT ) , in twins classified as monochorionic or dichorionic , based on ultrasound appearance at 10-14 weeks of gestation .
560
The mean +/- SD log ( 10 ) MoM for NT , PAPP-A and free beta-hCG was -0.024 +/- 0.101 , 0.007 +/- 0.244 , 0.047 +/- 0.273 and -0.011 +/- 0.108 , -0.006 +/- 0.223 , 0.008 +/- 0.264 in pregnancies with and without a history of early vaginal bleeding , with a p value of 0.07 , 0.40 and 0.03 respectively .
561
Prospective screening for trisomy 21 by maternal age , fetal NT , free beta-hCG and PAPP-A at 11 ( +0 ) -13 ( +6 ) weeks in singleton pregnancies , including 56 376 normal cases , 395 with trisomy 21 , 122 with trisomy 18 and 61 with trisomy 13 .
562
In examining data from 722 pregnancies in which the fetus was affected by trisomy 21 , we observed a similar 20.8% increase in free beta-hCG MoM , 5.7% increase in PAPP-A and a 12% decrease in delta NT when the fetus was female .
563
For maternal serum free beta-hCG MoM a significant correlation was found ( r = 03976 , p < 0001 ) , as was also found for PAPP-A MoM ( r = 04371 , p < 0001 ) .
564
In a screening policy based on maternal age , fetal NT , FHR , serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A , for a fixed risk cut-off of 1 : 100 , the false-positive rate was 3.0% .
565
In all cases the fetal karyotype was determined by chorionic villus sampling ( CVS ) , which was carried out at the request of the parents after first-trimester screening for trisomy 21 by fetal NT and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A .
566
Modelling the detection rate for a 3 or 5% false-positive rate when screening using intact hCG , free beta-hCG and PAPP-A at 8-10 weeks of gestation indicated that 71 or 77% of cases would be detected .
567
Fetuses with a 69 , XXX karyotype had significantly lower multiples of the median values for BETA-hCG and PAPP-A than did 69 , XXY fetuses ( P  =  0045 and P  =  002 forBETA-hCG and PAPP-A , respectively ) .
568
Firstly , to establish a reference range of birth weight with gestation at delivery ; secondly , to identify maternal characteristics that are significantly associated with birth weight ; and thirdly , to determine if combinations of maternal characteristics , fetal nuchal translucency thickness ( NT ) , and serum concentrations of free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin ( BETA-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) are significant predictors of small-for-gestational-age ( SGA ) neonates in the absence of preeclampsia .
569
Women were offered screening using a combination of maternal serum free beta-hCG and pregnancy associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) and fetal nuchal translucency thickness .
570
The study included patients with singleton pregnancies who underwent combined first trimester screening using nuchal translucency ( NT ) and maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin ( free beta-hCG ) and PAPP-A at 10-13 weeks gestation .
571
Significantly different median MoMs for Down syndrome cases compared to controls were found for PAPP-A ( 049 vs. 100 ; P < 00001 ) , free BETA-hCG ( 170 vs. 101 ; P < 00001 ) , ADAM12 ( 089 vs. 100 ; P < 00001 ) , total hCG ( 128 vs. 100 ; P < 00001 ) , PlGF ( 080 vs. 100 ; P < 00001 ) and NT ( 174 vs. 101 ; P < 00001 ) .
572
Regression analysis was performed to determine the significance of the contribution to adverse outcome of reversed a-wave in the ductus venosus , maternal characteristics , fetal delta nuchal translucency , maternal serum log PAPP-A multiples of the median , and log free beta-hCG multiples of the median .
573
In smokers there was a weekly decrease in PAPP-A of 2.4% and in free BETA-hCG of 1.6% .
574
Bivariate Gaussian distributions were fitted to log MoM PAPP-A and log MoM free BETA-hCG in trisomy 21 and in unaffected pregnancies .
575
First trimester 25 ( OH ) D , BETA-hCG , and PAPP-A levels increase with gestational age ; however , placental peptides do not correlate with vitamin D levels , suggesting a non-placental 25 ( OH ) D production .
576
We assessed the discriminatory efficiency and cost-effectiveness of a novel way of organising first trimester screening for Down syndrome ( DS ) , contingent testing , where a serological test ( PAPP-A and beta-hCG :
577
To prospectively evaluate the performance of first-trimester combined screening for trisomy 21 using the biochemical markers pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) and free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin ( free BETA-hCG ) obtained before and at the time of the nuchal translucency ( NT ) scan .
578
Fetal nuchal translucency thickness ( NT ) and ductus venosus pulsatility index for veins ( DV-PIV ) at 11 + 0 to 13 + 6 weeks gestation and serum free BETA-human chorionic gonadotropin ( BETA-hCG ) , pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) , placental growth factor ( PlGF ) and alpha-fetoprotein ( AFP ) at 8 + 0 to 13 + 6 weeks .
579
Monochorionic twins have a significantly lower free beta-hCG weight-corrected MoM ( 153 versus 211 ; Mann-Whitney U , p = 0002 ) and a significantly lower PAPP-A weight-corrected MoM ( 159 versus 240 ; Mann-Whitney U , p = 0003 ) compared to dichorionic .
580
Population modelling using parameters from this and an earlier study showed that a combination of ADAM 12 and PAPP-A measured at 8-9 weeks and combined with NT and free beta-hCG measured at 12 weeks could achieve a detection rate of 97% at a 5% false-positive rate or 89% at a 1% false-positive rate .
581
The effect of additional PlGF measurement at the time of combined screening was investigated by simulating fetal nuchal translucency ( NT ) measurements and multiples of the median ( MoM ) values for PAPP-A , free BETA-hCG and PlGF for 20,000 euploid and 20,000 trisomy 21 pregnancies .
582
Maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A in fetal sex chromosome defects in the first trimester .
583
Extreme values of first-trimester free beta-hCG , PAPP-A , and nuchal translucency are all associated with adverse outcomes .
584
Patient-specific risks for trisomies 21 , 18 and 13 were calculated by multiplying the age related risk for trisomies 21 , 18 and 13 with the likelihood ratio ( LR ) for fetal NT and with a combined LR for FHR , free beta-hCG and PAPP-A , respectively .
585
Validation of the performance of the new algorithm of the FMF London for screening for trisomy 21 using a combination of maternal age , fetal nuchal translucency ( NT ) and maternal serum free BETA-hCG and PAPP-A .
586
To study the effect of ethnic Chinese on the medians of free beta-hCG and PAPP-A in the first trimester of pregnancy .
587
Since we were in the phase of collecting data for the Finnish medians for PAPP-A and beta-hCG , the women were not given the estimates of risk for trisomy 21 .
588
In a prospective study from March 2007 to June 2007 , three-dimensional ( 3D ) volumes of the fetal profile in the mid-sagittal plane were recorded from 102 normal pregnancies screened for trisomy 21 by the combination of fetal nuchal translucency ( NT ) thickness , maternal serum free BETA-human chorionic gonadotropin ( BETA-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) at 11 + 0 to 13 + 6 weeks. 3D volumes were examined using multiplanar techniques .
589
To create reference centile chart of fetal nuchal translucency maternal serum pregnancy associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) and maternal serum free beta human chorionic gonadotropin ( beta-hCG ) in order to predict preliminarily Down syndrome in Thai fetuses during 10-14 weeks of gestation .
590
Although BETA-hCG values show no statistically significant difference ( p = 0882 ) , PAPP-A levels were significantly reduced in the pre-eclampsia group compared to the control group ( p < 0001 ) .
591
There is no relationship between tricuspid regurgitation and the levels of maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A in cases with trisomy 21 .
592
To investigate the potential value of adding maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein ( AFP ) to free BETA-human chorionic gonadotropin ( BETA-hCG ) and PAPP-A and fetal nuchal translucency ( NT ) thickness in first-trimester screening for trisomy 21 .
593
All patients had a first-trimester nuchal translucency scan , and those without cystic hygroma had a combined test ( nuchal translucency , pregnancy-associated plasma protein A , and free beta-hCG ) and returned at 15-18 weeks for a second-trimester quadruple screen ( serum alpha-fetoprotein , total hCG , unconjugated estriol , and inhibin-A ) .
594
To examine the effectiveness of first trimester fetal Trisomy 21 ( T21 ) screening using a combination of maternal age , nuchal translucency , maternal serum levels of free beta-hCG and PAPP-A in a predominantly Chinese population in Hong Kong .
595
In IVF pregnancies , screening for trisomy 21 by fetal NT , maternal serum free beta-HCG and PAPP-A levels may be associated with a 1.2% higher false-positive rate than in natural conception .
596
There was no significant association between the FMF angle and fetal NT or serum PAPP-A or beta-hCG .
597
To investigate whether measurement of maternal serum placental growth factor ( PLGF ) can improve the performance of first-trimester combined screening for trisomy-21 by fetal nuchal translucency ( NT ) thickness and serum free BETA-human chorionic gonadotropin ( BETA-hCG ) and PAPP-A .
598
The median MOM in affected pregnancies was 0.25 for PAPP-A and 0.34 for free beta-hCG .
599
The measurement sensitivity of the fetal nuchal translucency in detection of the fetal chromosomal abnormalities was 80% and sensitivity of serum concentrations of PAPP-A and free beta-HCG was 40% and 80% .
600
In the case of monochorionic and dichorionic twins the median weight corrected , ethnicity corrected , smoking corrected and IVF corrected , free beta-hCG MoMs were not significantly different ( 1983 v 2041 ) , however for PAPP-A the median weight corrected , ethnicity corrected , smoking corrected and IVF corrected MoM in monochorionic twins was significantly lower than in dichorionic twins ( 1756 v 2250 ) whilst the sd log ( 10 ) MoMs were not significantly different ( 02185 v 02167 ) .
601
Multivariate regression analysis indicated that free beta-hCG MoM was statistically significantly dependent on maternal weight ( P < 00001 ) and chorionicity in twin pregnancy ( both monochorionic and dichorionic P < 00001 ) , that PAPP-A MoM was dependent on maternal weight ( P < 00001 ) , parity ( P < 00001 ) , chorionicity in twin pregnancy ( both monochorionic and dichorionic P < 00001 ) and mode of conception ( P = 0002 ) , and that fetal NT-MoM was dependent on maternal weight ( P = 00006 ) and mode of conception ( P = 0012 ) .
602
The detection rate of trisomy 21 for a fixed false-positive rate of 3% in screening by maternal age and fetal NT was 72% , and in screening by maternal age , fetal NT and serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A it was 86% .
603
With spontaneous abortions , beta-hCG levels decline to very low values whereas PAPP-A continues to increase .
604
Nomogrames for free beta-hCG and PAPP-A levels in physiological pregnancy between 11 ( +0 ) and 13(6) weeks were determined in the examined population .
605
Among the seven cases , five had measurements of maternal serum concentration free beta-hCG and PAPP-A concentration , yet there were not significant difference between the pregnancies with fetal acrania and those of the control pregnancies ( PAPP-A , 113 vs. 096 ; free beta-hCG , 110 vs. 106 ; P > 005 ) .
606
Maternal age , crown-rump length ( CRL ) ( restricted to a range from 45 - 84 mm or , equivalently , 11 + 1 - 14 + 0 weeks of gestation ) , nuchal translucency ( NT ) , as well as the maternal serum parameters PAPP-A ( pregnancy associated plasma protein A ) and free beta-hCG ( free human chorionic gonadotropin ) .
607
In pregnancies with fetal trisomy 21 , the median maternal age , fetal NT thickness and serum free BETA-hCG were increased , whereas serum PAPP-A was decreased .
608
A total of 213 pregnant women were screened consecutively by combining maternal age , fetal NT and maternal serum pregnancy associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) and free BETA-human chorionic gonadotropin ( f BETA-HCG ) values at 11-14 weeks of gestation .
609
The influence of fetal sex in screening for trisomy 21 by fetal nuchal translucency , maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A at 10-14 weeks of gestation .
610
Maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A were determined at 8 to 12 weeks and fetal NT was measured at 11 to 14 weeks .
611
Predicting the risk of pre-eclampsia between 11 and 13 weeks gestation by combining maternal characteristics and serum analytes , PAPP-A and free BETA-hCG .
612
All women completed a first trimester combined ultrasound and biochemical screening programme comprising serum PAPP-A and free beta-hCG together with nuchal translucency ( NT ) measurement .
613
Prior history of pre-eclampsia , pregestational diabetes mellitus , chronic hypertension , chronic kidney disease , body mass index >30 , autoimmune disorder , thrombophilia or recurrent pregnancy loss ) , booked for routine assessment of risk for aneuploidies by means of the first-trimester combined screening test ( nuchal translucency thickness ( NT ) + PAPP-A + beta-human chorionic gonadotropin ( beta-hCG ) ) .
614
At 30-33 weeks in the PE group , PlGF was reduced ( 0356 MoM ) , free BETA-hCG was increased ( 1750 MoM ) , but PAPP-A was not significantly different ( 0991 MoM ) from control ( 1000 MoM ) .
615
In a screening policy based on maternal age , fetal NT , FHR , serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A , for a fixed false positive rate of 3% the standardized detection rates were 91% for trisomy 21 and 100% for trisomy 18 , trisomy 13 and Turner syndrome .
616
To examine the potential impact of combining maternal age with fetal nuchal translucency thickness and maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin ( beta-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) in screening for trisomy 21 at 10-14 weeks of gestation .
617
Serum samples were obtained from 67 pregnant women with twin pregnancies and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A concentrations were compared with those of 4279 singleton controls between the 8th and 13th weeks of gestation .
618
In singleton pregnancies attending for routine care , serum-free BETA-hCG and PAPP-A were measured at 9 ( +0 ) -13 ( +6 ) weeks gestation and fetal nuchal translucency was measured at 11 ( +0 ) -13 ( +6 ) weeks .
619
The rate of fetal loss increased with decreasing maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A and increasing delta NT .
620
The standard deviation of the log ( 10 ) MoM free beta-hCG was lower in the smoking group and that for PAPP-A was higher in the smoking group .
621
Elevated first-trimester free BETA-hCG was related to adverse pregnancy outcomes in twin pregnancies , whereas low PAPP-A levels were not linked to adverse pregnancy outcomes .
622
Smoking decreased MoM values of free beta-hCG ( by 146% ; P < 001 ) and PAPP-A ( by 188% ; P < 0001 ) .
623
The overall median weight-corrected MoM was 1.99 for free beta-hCG , and 2.14 for PAPP-A in all twins .
624
In general population-based screening , a CRL measurement error SD of 5 mm accounts for an estimated 5% of the SD of log MoM PAPP-A and less than 1% of the SD of log MoM free BETA-hCG .
625
There were no significant differences in the level of free beta-hCG ; however , in cases of trisomy 21 and trisomy 13 the levels of PAPP-A were increased by 5 and 16% , respectively .
626
Estimates of detection rates for trisomy 21 and false-positive rates were calculated for combined screening with measurements of NT at 12 weeks together with measurements of free BETA-hCG and PAPP-A from 8 to 13 weeks .
627
The use of ADAM12-S along with biochemical markers from the combined test ( PAPP-A , free beta hCG ) with or without nuchal translucency measurement did not affect the detection rate or false positive rate of fetal aneuploidy as compared to routine screening using PAPP-A and free BETA-hCG with or without nuchal translucency .
628
When maternal serum free-beta human chorionic gonadotrophin ( beta-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) at 11-14 weeks are also taken into account , the detection rate of chromosomal defects is about 90% .
629
Free beta-hCG MoM was less than the 5th centile of normal in 64 per cent of cases of trisomy 18 and for PAPP-A was less than the 5th centile in 78 per cent of cases .
630
In the group with Down syndrome , the median MoM free beta-hCG was not significantly different in the smokers ( 169 versus 186 ) as was that for PAPP-A ( 053 versus 057 ) .
631
There was a significant positive correlation between birth weight and PAPP-A , but not free beta-hCG levels .
632
To use multiple regression analysis to define the contribution of maternal variables that influence the measured concentration of free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin ( beta-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) , and the interaction between these covariates , in first-trimester biochemical screening for trisomy 21 .
633
At a false positive rate ( FPR ) of 5 per cent , the detection rate ( DR ) for DS is 9 per cent for beta-hCG , 18 per cent for AFP , and 66 per cent for PAPP-A when considering these parameters individually .
634
To investigate the potential value of combining uterine artery Doppler ultrasonography with the measurement of maternal serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) , free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin ( beta-hCG ) , activin A and inhibin A at 22 + 0 to 24 + 6 weeks gestation , in the prediction of pregnancies that subsequently develop pre-eclampsia .
635
In screening by NT , FHR , free BETA-hCG and PAPP-A , using specific algorithms for trisomy 21 and trisomies 18 and 13 at the risk cutoff of 1 : 100 , the estimated detection rate ( DR ) was 87.0% for trisomy 21 and 91.8% for trisomies 18 and 13 , at a false-positive rate ( FPR ) of 2.2% .
636
In both the euploid and aneuploid pregnancies , there was a significant association between ADAM12 and free beta-hCG and PAPP-A .
637
Combined screening for chromosome abnormalities in the first trimester of pregnancy is based on maternal age , nuchal translucency ( NT ) and biochemical markers ( PAPP-A and free BETA-hCG ) .
638
In addition to DV blood flow , the levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) and free BETA - human chorionic gonadotropin ( BETA-hCG ) in maternal serum were measured .
639
The intention of this study is to analyze the impact of the single parameters NT , PAPP-A and free BETA-hCG used in combined first trimester screening and to determine their contribution in the risk assessment .
640
In the preterm delivery group ( n = 159 ) , the median free beta-hCG ( 0944 MoM ) and uterine artery mean PI ( 106 ) were not significantly different from normal but the median PAPP-A ( 0928 MoM ) was significantly lower than normal .
641
Screening for trisomy 21 in twin pregnancies in the first trimester using free beta-hCG and PAPP-A , combined with fetal nuchal translucency thickness .
642
Various biomarkers of screening for fetal CHD are currently available , such as nuchal translucency ( NT ) , BETA-hCG and PAPP-A ; however , these are non-specific indexes with high incidences of false positive results .
643
To establish normative values and distribution parameters of first-trimester screening markers , namely , fetal nuchal translucency ( NT ) , maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin ( beta-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) , at 10 to 13 ( +6 ) weeks of gestation in Saudi women and to evaluate the effect of co-variables including maternal body weight , gravidity , parity , fetal gender , twin pregnancy , smoking and ethnicity on these markers .
644
We have found a 14.74% increase in first trimester maternal serum ( MS ) median free beta-hCG MoM , 6.25% increase of PAPP-A and a 9.41% decrease in delta NT , when the fetus was female .
645
We examined 54 722 singleton pregnancies with no chromosomal abnormality and with complete outcome data that had undergone screening for trisomy 21 by a combination of fetal nuchal translucency ( NT ) thickness and maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin ( beta-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) at 11 + 0 and 13 + 6 weeks gestation .
646
To evaluate the performance and use of second-trimester multiple-marker maternal serum screening for trisomy 21 by women who had previously undergone first-trimester combined screening ( nuchal translucency , pregnancy-associated plasma protein A , and free beta-hCG ) , with disclosure of risk estimates .
647
A first trimester screening combining it with nuchal translucency , and biochemical parameters of free beta-hCG and PAPP-A ; a second trimester screening by the evaluation of up to 6 biometric parameters ( biparietal diameter , cranial circumferentia , femur , humerus , pyelectasis and plica nucalis ) , and up to 7 associated morphologic parameters ( hyperechogenic bowel , cardiac foci , interventricular defect , pericardial effusion , tricuspid valve regurgitation , right/left heart disproportion , and structural abnormalities ) .
648
In the control group there was a small but significant correlation of PIGF with free beta-hCG ( r = +01024 ) and PAPP-A ( r = +02288 ) .
649
The distribution of fetal NT , maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A in trisomy 21 fetuses with absent and present tricuspid regurgitation was examined .
650
Individual trisomy 21 risks were calculated by a combination of NT , maternal age , free BETA-hCG , and PAPP-A using the FMF algorithm in force at the time of investigation .
651
In total , 3864 singleton pregnancies with live fetuses at 11-14 weeks were examined and the fetal NT and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A were successfully measured in all cases .
652
We examined 2 screening strategies ; first , integrated first-trimester screening in all patients and second , first-stage screening of all patients using fetal NT and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A , followed by second-stage assessment of nasal bone only in those with an intermediate risk of 1 in 101 to 1 in 1000 after the first-stage .
653
In each case uterine myomas were diagnosed--over 20 mm in the diameter and located in the uterine wall. 77 patients underwent the first trimester screening ( PAPP-A & free beta-hCG ) and 50 patients had the second trimester screening ( triple test ) .
654
In the group with a vanished twin with a measurable-CRL-there was a significantly increased median PAPP-A MoM ( 1317 ) but the median free beta-hCG MoM was not changed ( 1024 ) .
655
In screening for trisomy 21 by maternal age and serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A the estimated detection rate was 65% for a false-positive rate of 5% .
656
To establish normative values and distribution parameters of first-trimester maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin ( beta-hCG ) , pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) and fetal nuchal translucency ( NT ) thickness in Chinese women and to examine the effects of covariates on their levels .
657
Comparison of median MoM maternal free BETA-hCG and PAPP-A , and fetal NT , in the four outcome groups .
658
In those pregnancies achieved by ovarian stimulation , neither fetal NT , free beta-HCG nor PAPP-A were significantly different from the control group .
659
There were significant associations between pregnancies in free BETA-hCG MoM ( r = 04435 ) and PAPP-A MoM ( r = 04796 ) .
660
Fetal NT , maternal serum free beta-hCG , PAPP-A and cotinine measurements .
661
The concentrations of free beta-hCG and PAPP-A were measured in samples collected from 10 pregnant women and stored as whole blood or serum for 1-8 days at 4 , 20 or 40 degrees C .
662
There was no significant association between the FMF angle with serum PAPP-A or BETA-hCG .
663
In the trisomy group there were significant positive associations between total activin-A and PAPP-A ( 06071 ) and free beta-hCG ( 04255 ) .
664
To assess 25-hydroxyvitamin D ( 25 ( OH ) D ) , free BETA-human chorionic gonadotropin ( BETA-hCG ) and pregnancy associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) status during pregnancy .
665
The association between free beta-hCG , PAPP-A and delta NT and the incidence of fetal loss prior to 24 weeks , at or after 24 weeks or at any time , was assessed by comparing the relative incidence at a number of MoM or delta NT cut-offs and at various centile cut-offs .
666
With the association of some biochemical markers like maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin ( beta-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) to ultrasonography at 11-14 weeks , it is possible to identify about 90% of chromosomal abnormalities .
667
Using the primary sample of 70,030 pregnancies with a negative outcome , reference bands were constructed for the sonographic parameter fetal nuchal translucency and the biochemical parameters PAPP-A and free beta-HCG .
668
The study protocol included first-trimester combined [nuchal translucency ( NT ) , free beta-HCG and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) ] testing .
669
A retrospective analysis of free beta-hCG and PAPP-A levels in 270 women with a normal singleton fetus with ultrasound evidence of a vanishing twin pregnancy .
670
To determine the performance of screening for Down syndrome ( DS ) and other major chromosomal abnormalities using nuchal translucency ( NT ) , free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin ( beta-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) in a prospective study of a non-selected population .
671
To assess the relationship between first-trimester maternal serum PAPP-A and free beta-hCG and birth weight .
672
In a preliminary study we showed that while PAPP-A levels were lower and free beta-hCG levels were higher in trisomy 21 fetuses with an absent nasal bone , this difference was not statistically different .
673
The proportion of false positive results in group of triple markers ( alpha FP , free beta-HCG , PAPP-A ) was 5% .
674
The degree of deviation from normal in the levels of inhibin and activin is small in comparison with free beta-hCG and PAPP-A and they are therefore unlikely to be of value in improving the sensitivity of 90% for a 1% false-positive rate achieved by screening with fetal nuchal translucency and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A .
675
Maternal serum free BETA-hCG and PAPP-A concentrations were measured before cordocentesis , and the final fetal diagnosis of homozygous ALPHA-thalassemia-1 disease was based on fetal Hb typing using high-performance liquid chromatography .
676
The normative values and distribution parameters for fetal NT , maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A were established in Saudi singleton pregnancies , the maternal body weight together with smoking , twin pregnancy and ethnicity being important first-trimester screening co-variables .
677
Fast early fetal growth , but neither high PAPP-A nor high free BETA-hCG , was significantly associated with preterm delivery .
678
Maternal serum levels of free beta-hCG and PAPP-A in the first trimester of pregnancy are not associated with subsequent fetal growth retardation or preterm delivery .
679
Maternal serum concentration of free BETA-hCG was significantly higher in women with fetal homozygous ALPHA-thalassemia-1 disease than those with unaffected fetuses ( P = 0018 ) , whereas the concentrations of PAPP-A was not significantly different ( P = 0184 ) .
680
We collected data ( 2007-2010 ) of all women who developed GDM requiring insulin treatment and completed first-trimester combined screening program including the determination of serum PAPP-A and free BETA-human chorionic gonadotropin ( BETA-hCG ) .
681
Beta-HCG and PLAC4 mRNAs were detected in all samples , in higher amounts than in plasma , whereas the detection rate for PAPP-A mRNA was below 10% .
682
First trimester screening using maternal age , NT , free beta-hCG and PAPP-A is highly effective for the detection of trisomy 21 and is associated with a sensitivity of about 90% for 5% false-positive patients .
683
A comparison was made between the marker distributions for pregnancy associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) and free beta-human chronic gonadotrophin ( beta-hCG ) amongst the cases and controls using nonparametric statistical tests .
684
To examine the levels of free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin ( free beta-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) in second-trimester maternal serum from pregnancies affected by trisomy 13 and compare these with the known reduced levels of these markers in first-trimester cases in an attempt to better understand the pathophysiology of changes in marker levels in chromosomally abnormal pregnancies between the first and second trimester .
685
We evaluated maternal characteristics , fetal NT , PAPP-A , free BETA-hCG and UtA-PI in 2097 singleton pregnancies at 11 + 0 to 13 + 6 weeks gestation .
686
No differences were found in fetal crown-rump length or maternal serum levels of BETA-hCG or PAPP-A .
687
First-trimester maternal serum free BETA human chorionic gonadotrophin ( free BETA-hCG ) pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) and fetal nuchal translucency thickness ( NT ) , were compared .
688
The separation of affected and unaffected pregnancies in maternal serum PIGF is small , and therefore it is unlikely that measurement of PIGF would improve screening for these abnormalities provided by the combination of fetal nuchal translucency and maternal serum PAPP-A and free beta-hCG .
689
This was a multicenter study of 886 pregnancies with trisomy 21 and 222 475 unaffected pregnancies with measurements of free BETA-human chorionic gonadotropin ( BETA-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) at 7-14 weeks gestation .
690
This was a case-control study of 25 pregnancies with fetal trisomy 21 and 50 euploid controls undergoing first-trimester screening for aneuploidies by a combination of maternal age , fetal nuchal translucency ( NT ) thickness and maternal serum free BETA-human chorionic gonadotrophin ( BETA-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) .
691
To evaluate the performance of first-trimester screening for trisomy 21 by a combination of maternal age , fetal nuchal translucency ( NT ) and maternal serum free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin ( beta-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) .
692
This study has validated the new risk algorithm and demonstrated that in combined screening for trisomy 21 based on maternal age , fetal NT and free beta-hCG and PAPP-A the detection rate is about 90% for a 3% false-positive rate .
693
There is no relationship between an absent fetal nasal bone and the levels of maternal serum PAPP-A or free beta-hCG in cases with trisomies 13 , 18 or 21 .
694
For an 85% Downs Syndrome detection rate , the false-positive rate for the Integrated test ( nuchal translucency and pregnancy associated plasma protein-A [PAPP-A] at 11 completed weeks of pregnancy , and alpha-fetoprotein , unconjugated oestriol [uE3] , free beta or total human chorionic gonadotrophin ( hCG ) and inhibin-A in the early second trimester ) was 0.9% , the Serum integrated test ( without nuchal translucency ) 2.7% , the Combined test ( nuchal translucency with free beta-hCG and PAPP-A at 11 weeks ) 4.3% , the Quadruple test ( alpha-fetoprotein , uE3 , free beta or total hCG and inhibin-A ) 6.2% , and nuchal translucency at 11 weeks , 15.2% .
695
VEGF , GLY , P , beta-HCG , PAPP-A , HPL and LIF were measured by enxyme-linked immunosorbent assay ( ELISA ) methods in a single pre-operative blood sample .
696
The correlation between free beta-hCG in sample 1 and sample 2 was 0.890 and that for PAPP-A was 0.827 .
697
Observed differences in measurements of fetal NT , serum concentrations of PAPP-A and free beta-HCG in a control group and the group with the aneuploidies confirmed usefulness of these methods for the first trimester prenatal screening .
698
Inclusion of PlGF into the first trimester combined test [maternal age , pregnancy associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) , free-beta human chorionic gonadotrophin ( beta-hCG ) and nuchal translucency] would increase the detection rate by 0.5% at a 5% false positive rate .
699
Early pregnancy screening with the combined measurement of maternal serum PAPP-A and free beta-hCG and fetal nuchal translucency could achieve a high Down syndrome detection rate .
700
Diagnosis and prediction of parental origin of triploidies by fetal nuchal translucency and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A at 11-14 weeks of gestation .
701
The quality of different first-trimester screening algorithms ( risk calculation based on maternal age and nuchal translucency alone , maternal age and serum parameters ( free beta-hCG and PAPP-A ) alone and a combination of both ) was evaluated in a study population of low - and high-risk cases for fetal aneuploidies .
702
Based on 45 trisomy 18 cases , we confirm the values of alpha-fetoprotein ( AFP ) ( median 061 MoM ) , free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin ( beta-hCG ) ( median 024 MoM ) and of PAPP-A ( median 008 MoM ) .
703
We have shown that gravidity and parity is associated with a small but progressive decrease in fetal NT and a small but progressive increase in free beta-hCG and PAPP-A .
704
Model-based estimates of screening performance were produced for the distribution of maternal ages in England and Wales in 2011 , and prospectively collected data on fetal NT , FHR , DV PIV , BETA-hCG , PAPP-A , PLGF and AFP from singleton pregnancies undergoing aneuploidy screening .
705
This was a prospective screening study for trisomy 21 in singleton pregnancies at 11 + 0 to 13 + 6 weeks of gestation using an algorithm combining maternal age , fetal NT thickness based on the mixture model for the assessment of NT , and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A based on a multiple regression model for the assessment of serum biochemistry .
706
Application of an algorithm , which combines PAPP-A and F beta-hCG levels with material age , detected 66.6 per cent of DS pregnancies for a five per cent false positive rate .
707
To examine the effect of the duration of storage of serum and whole blood at different controlled temperatures on the concentrations of both serum free-beta-human chorionic gonadotropin ( beta-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) in first-trimester screening for aneuploidies .
708
Higher median levels of free beta-hCG and PAPP-A in the first trimester of pregnancy in a Chinese ethnic group . ~@~ Implication for first trimester combined screening for Downs syndrome in the Chinese population .
709
In the macrosomic group compared to the unaffected group there were higher DELTA-NT ( 0167 vs. 0116 mm ) , free BETA-hCG ( 1010 vs. 0964 MoM ) and PAPP-A ( 1103 vs. 1003 MoM ) .
710
Using estimates from the literature , a simulation study was undertaken to estimate the performance of tests incorporating , Free beta-hCG , total hCG and PAPP-A at gestations of 8-12 weeks .
711
Maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A in patients with habitual abortion-influence on first-trimester screening for chromosomal abnormalities .
712
Incorporation of biochemical tests ( PAPP-A , and free beta-hCG measurement ) into the screening increased the detection rate to 88.9% ( 8/9 ) and decreased the false-positive rate to 3.6% .
713
The model was marginally improved by the addition of UA Doppler , smoking status and first-trimester indices ( free BETA-hCG and PAPP-A multiples of the median ) ( combined model , AUC = 088 ) , but the difference was not statistically significant .
714
First-trimester combined screening test of aneuploidy parameters ( maternal age , PAPP-A and free BETA-hCG , NT thickness ) were compared between non-ART and ART ( IVF , ICSI and IUI ) singleton pregnancies .
715
In this study , we tested the equality of measurements for free beta-hCG and PAPP-A between Delfia Xpress systems and one AutoDelfia system .
716
Crude relative risks were calculated to investigate the association between low levels ( multiples of the median < or = 5th percentile ) of PAPP-A or free beta-hCG and the outcomes of preterm delivery ( <37 weeks ) , small for gestational age ( <10th percentile ) , fetal loss and stillbirth .
717
Free beta human chorionic gonadotrophin ( beta-hCG ) , pregnancy-associated plasma protein ( PAPP-A ) from materal serum were measured using time resolved fluorescence immunoassay ( TRFIA ) and fetal nuchal translucency ( NT ) thickness were measured using transabdominal or transvaginal ultrasound. 22 chromosomal defects were diagnosed in 22 cases using karyotyping .
718
For other sex chromosomal anomalies ( 47XXX , XXY , XYY ) the median NT was increased ( 207 MoM ) whilst PAPP-A was not significantly decreased ( 088 MoM ) and free beta-hCG was not significantly different ( 107 MoM ) from controls .
719
From January 2009 to December 2012 , 43 729 pregnant women undergoing 3 methods of Down syndrome traditional screening strategies in Shenzhen Maternity and Child Healthcare Hospital were studied retrospectively , including in 17 502 cases in pregnancy associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) and free BETA-hCG measured biochemistry screening , 14 080 cases in nuchal translucency ( NT ) screening and 12 147 cases in combined screening , meanwhile , 7 389 cases on non-invasive fetal trisomy test ( NIFTY ) were performed in Huada Gene Research Institute ( BGI ) .
720
First , screening study of maternal characteristics , serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) , free BETA-human chorionic gonadotrophin ( BETA-hCG ) and uterine artery pulsatility index ( PI ) .
721
Regression analysis was used to determine if in predicting macrosomia significant contributions are provided by maternal factors , fetal NT , free BETA-hCG and PAPP-A .
722
First-trimester biochemical screening for Down syndrome with the use of PAPP-A , AFP , and beta-hCG .
723
In a population with the maternal age distribution of pregnancies in England and Wales , it was estimated that , using the combination of maternal age , fetal nuchal translucency thickness and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A , the detection of trisomy 21 pregnancies would be 89% at a fixed false-positive rate of 5% .
724
First-trimester screening for fetal aneuploidy using nuchal translucency ( NT ) , pregnancy-associated plasma protein A , free or total beta-hCG , and maternal age constitutes a very effective screening test for fetal Down syndrome .
725
Screening for trisomy 21 by fetal tricuspid regurgitation , nuchal translucency and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A at 11 + 0 to 13 + 6 weeks .
726
Combined measurement of fetal nuchal translucency , maternal serum free beta-hCG , and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A for first-trimester Downs syndrome screening .
727
Conversely , low levels of PAPP-A and free beta-hCG as well as increased nuchal translucency were individually associated with increased early loss .
728
The data of 200 twins with normal outcome were used for setting up reference values for free beta-hCG and PAPP-A .
729
The likelihood ratio profiles provided at various levels of PAPP-A or free beta-hCG may be of some help in counseling women with such results and raise awareness among health-care professionals for increased surveillance in such cases .
730
Based on these parameters we estimate that screening at 9-11 weeks with PAPP-A and free beta-hCG will yield a 64.6 per cent detection rate for a 5 per cent false-positive rate .
731
In the trisomy 21 pregnancies the median free beta-hCG was 2.3 MoM and the median PAPP-A was 0.45 MoM .
732
To examine the effect of smoking on three first trimester screening markers for Downs syndrome that constitute the Combined test , namely nuchal translucency ( NT ) , pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) and free beta human chorionic gonadotophin ( free beta-hCG ) and to use the results to determine which of these markers need to be adjusted for smoking and by how much .
733
Also in the most cases of trisomy 21 and 18 and in triploidies a characteristic ratio of hCG/free beta-hCG and PAPP-A was discovered .
734
To estimate patterns of total hCG and inhibin A levels in the late first trimester of Down syndrome pregnancies , compare them with that of free beta-hCG , and assess screening performance of these markers individually and in combination with pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) and nuchal translucency .
735
At 11 to 13 + 6 weeks , fetal crown-rump length ( CRL ) , placental volume ( PlaV ) , uterine artery pulsatility index ( UtA-PI ) , and the maternal serum levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A ( PAPP-A ) and free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin ( beta-hCG ) were measured .
736
The risk of preterm delivery ( <37 weeks ) and small for gestational age ( SGA ) ( PAPP-A and free BETA-hCG < 0.4 multiples of the median , stratified according to early ( <10 weeks ) or late ( ≥ 10 weeks ) biochemical testing .
737
The median values for Edwards syndrome were : 0.17 MOM for PAPP-A ; 0.18 MOM for free beta-hCG ; and 2.64 MOM for NT .
738
In the SGA group compared with the unaffected group , there were lower median delta NT ( 010 versus 012 mm ) , free BETA-hCG [0.9 versus 1.0 MoM ( multiples of median ) ] , and PAPP-A ( 08 versus 10 MoM ) .
739
Prediction of pregnancy complications by first-trimester maternal serum PAPP-A and free beta-hCG and with second-trimester uterine artery Doppler .
740
First , integrated first-trimester screening in all patients and second , first-stage screening of all patients using fetal NT and maternal serum free beta-hCG and PAPP-A followed by second-stage assessment of tricuspid regurgitation only in those with an intermediate risk of 1 in 101 to 1 in 1000 after the first stage .
741
This screening is done by a combination of two biochemical markers i.e. serum free BETA-human chorionic gonadotrophin ( free BETA-hCG ) and pregnancy associated plasma protein A ( PAPP-A ) , maternal age and fetal nuchal translucency ( NT ) thickness at 11+0-13+6weeks of gestation .
742
In women of Afro-Caribbean race there was a weekly increase in PAPP-A of 5.3% and in free BETA-hCG of 1.8% .
743
In the IVF pregnancies , the median fetal NT was not significantly different from that in controls , whilst the median free beta-HCG was significantly increased , and PAPP-A was significantly decreased .
744
Fetal NT showed a negative relationship with increasing gravidity ( r = -0296 ) or parity ( r = -0311 ) , whereas both free beta-hCG and PAPP-A exhibited a significant positive relationship .
745
When compared with the Kryptor , the DPC free beta-hCG showed a significant concentration-related negative bias above concentrations of 50 IU/L in both unaffected and affected pregnancy samples .
746
For a fixed FPR of 10 and 5% , serum PlGF , free BETA-hCG and chronic hypertension identified respectively 67 and 75% of women who developed early-onset PE .
747
Free BETA-hCG ( MoM ) +/- SEM differed significantly ( 155 +/- 019 in Vitrolife versus 106 +/- 010 in Cook ; P = 0031 , Students t-test ) .
748
Pregnancies affected by homozygous alpha0-thalassemia are associated with increased maternal serum free beta-hCG at 11-14 weeks of gestation .
749
We carried out a multi-centre , interventional study in the unselected population of a single health authority in order to assess the performance of first trimester combined screening , followed by routine second trimester ultrasound examination and/or screening by maternal serum markers ( free beta-hCG and alpha-fetoprotein measurement or total hCG , alpha-fetoprotein and unconjugated estriol measurement ) when incidentally performed .
750
Adjustment for smoking is recommended in first-trimester prenatal screening for trisomy 18 and probably not warranted for Down syndrome because of the cancelling effects of decreased free beta-hCG and increased NT .
751
In a second study involving 10 pregnant women , free beta-hCG was measured at 10 min and at 2 , 4 , 8 and 12 h after collection and storage at 30 or 40 degrees C , either as separated serum or as whole blood .
752
In the first step , a 0.5 MoM cut-off for AFP or for free beta-hCG resulted in detection of 37/45 trisomy 18 cases ( 82% ) with a 10% false-positive rate .
753
Free BETA-hCG showed the lowest AUC .
754
Maternal serum free beta-hCG levels were lower in pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia than in normotensive ones .
755
The levels of beta-HCG mRNA significantly correlated with the circulatory concentrations of the HCG protein .
756
The median free beta-hCG in multiples of the appropriate gestational median ( MoM ) in the second-trimester samples was not significantly different from the controls ( 1.15 ( 95% CI 0827-1651 ) versus 1.00 ) .
757
The median MoM of free BETA-hCG in the affected group was 1.38 MoM and in the unaffected group was 0.88 MoM ( P = 0020 ) .
758
At the 5th centile of the normal outcome group for free beta-hCG ( 041 MoM ) the odds ratio for fetal loss before 24 weeks , at or above 24 weeks and at any gestation was 3.1 , 1.8 and 2.6 , respectively .
759
For the other markers the median value in Down syndrome was estimated from the weighted mean across all first-trimester series : 1.98 MOM for free beta-hCG in 579 cases ; 0.79 MOM for AFP in 243 and 0.74 MOM for uE3 in 226 .
760
Free beta-HCG and intact HCG concentrations were very high [> or = 2.5 multiples of the median ( MoM ) ] in all cases .
761
Beckman Coulter Access 2 Immunoassay was used to measure MoM of serum ALPHA-fetoprotein , MoM of serum total BETA-hCG and MoM of serum estriol in the second trimester .
762
All samples had been measured for free BETA-human chorionic gonadotropin ( BETA-hCG ) and pregnancy-associated plasma protein ( PAPP ) -A .
763
The concentration of free beta-hCG was not altered by storage of either whole blood or separated serum at 4 degrees C throughout the 8 days of storage .
764
Seventy-nine matched case-control sets of maternal serum samples ( each Down syndrome case matched to 5 controls ) from 11 through 13 completed weeks of gestation were taken from the sample bank of the First and Second Trimester Evaluation of Risk Consortium , a population-based study , and assayed for levels of free beta-hCG , total hCG , and inhibin A .
765
Similar analyses were made with free BETA-hCG , but no statistically significant associations were found .
766
Alpha-fetoprotein ( AFP ) , human chorionic gonadotrophin ( free beta-HCG ) were used as markers during the first year of pregnancy .
767
However , within the HIV-positive group those receiving antiretroviral treatment ( n = 41 ) had a significantly lower median multiple of the median ( MoM ) for free BETA-hCG ( 0.74 , interquartile range [IQR] 0.45-1.32 MoM ) than HIV-positive women on no treatment ( 103 , IQR 076-185 MoM ; P = 0006 ) and HIV-negative women ( 10 , IQR 068-147 MoM ; P = 0003 ) .
768
Median multiples of the median levels of free beta-hCG , total hCG , and inhibin A in cases were more elevated as gestation increased from 11 to 13 weeks , with univariate detection rates of 31% , 23% , and 29% , respectively , at a 5% false-positive rate .
769
Low BETA-hCG was associated with increased risk for PTD only in ART pregnancies ( OR = 83 , 95% CI 19 , 359 ) for PTD < 37 weeks ( OR 61 , 95% CI 16 , 230 ) for PTD < 35 weeks and ( OR = 108 , 95% CI 27 , 437 ) for PTD < 32 weeks .
770
The respective values for the 5th centile of free beta-hCG ( 041 MoM ) were 1.18 and 1.08 and for the 95th centile of delta NT they were 0.91 and 0.77 , respectively .
771
We have found the median multiple of the median ( MoM ) of maternal serum free beta-hCG to be significantly lower ( 0327 ) than normal , as was the level of AFP ( 0600 ) .
772
On the contrary , free beta-hCG diverged from the median with increasing gestational age .
773
Using a 1 in 250 cut-off risk , DRs at each gestation in the second trimester for the AFP+F beta-hCG combination were maximized at 14-17 weeks of gestation and were virtually identical at 63-65% for model 1 and model 2 .
774
Secondary exposures were defined as > or = 90th percentile MoM for beta-hCG and NT values of > or = 20 and 25 mm .
775
The free BETA-hCG level and NT thickness did not differ between ART and non-ART pregnancies .
776
Univariate analysis revealed that all markers except free beta-hCG correlated with birth weight Z-score .
777
When combined with maternal age , fetal nuchal translucency and maternal serum free BETA-hCG it has a detection rate of 85-90% for trisomy 21 (1) .
778
There were no differences between groups with respect to first-trimester free BETA-hCG , second-trimester free BETA-hCG , unconjugated estriol , or inhibin ( ) .
779
Those women with borderline Down syndrome risks received follow-up second-trimester maternal serum involving double , triple , or quadruple serum screening markers : alpha-fetoprotein , free beta-hCG or total hCG , unconjugated estriol and inhibin-A .
780
No marker showed significant correlation with any other or with maternal age , with the obvious exception of free beta-hCG subunit and total hCG .
781
Higher concentration of beta-hCG , higher percentage of the positive biochemical prenatal tests and abnormal uterine artery Doppler waveform .
782
First trimester maternal serum screening for Downs syndrome : an evaluation of the DPC Immulite 2000 free beta-hCG and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A assays .
783
ALPHA-fetoprotein ) , free BETA-hCG , unconjugated estriol , and inhibin .
784
Second-trimester free BETA-hCG , unconjugated estriol , and inhibin .
785
Normal 1.06 , 95 per cent CI 0.89-1.20 ) were lower and free beta-hCG subunit measurements ( 113 MOM , 95 per cent CI 093-263 vs .
786
Elevated free BETA-hCG levels ( >90th percentile ) were linked to increased rates of PIH and small-for-gestational-age fetuses or IUGR .
787
However , neither beta-HCG - nor PLAC4 mRNAs show a significant difference between cases and controls .
788
The presence of the uterine leiomyomas may increase maternal serum concentration of the BETA-hCG and so after the rate of the false positive results of the prenatal screening tests .
789
With a DR of 90% , the best combination was the first-trimester beta-hCG and NT with the second-trimester proMBP and AFP .
790
Together with beta-HCG and nuchal translucency , two other first trimester markers for fetal DS , a DR 90% could be obtained for an SPR of 5% .
791
0.95-1.37 ) for beta-hCG and 0.97 ( 95% CI : .
792
Second-trimester levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and free beta-hCG in pregnancies with trisomy 13 .
793
Similarly , median values of free BETA-hCG were 1.3 MoM in HG pregnancies and 1.0 MoM in controls ( p = 0006 ) .
794
Maternal serum concentration of free beta-hCG was significantly increased in women with pregnancies affected by homozygous alpha0-thalassemia than in controls ( P = 001 ) .
795
Combining AFP and BPD with free BETA-hCG as part of first-trimester aneuploidy screening would also allow early detection about two-thirds of cases with open spina bifida .
796
MoM values ( body weight-corrected ) of free beta-hCG were 25.2% higher in Africans and 19.4% higher in Orientals but 6.8% lower in other Arabian and Asian ( by 58% ) women as compared to Saudi women ( P < 005 ; in each case ) .
797
The median MoM values for free beta-hCG were 1.00 MoM for the controls , 2.05 MoM for trisomy 21 and 0.38 MoM for trisomy 18 .
798
First trimester free beta-hCG is significantly higher in pregnancies with a female fetus .
799
The median concentrations of free beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin ( BETA-hCG ) were significantly higher ( 143 MoM ) .
800
There was a significant increase in the MoM of free beta-hCG in female fetuses .
801
In the second trimester group , no significant differences in AFP and estriol median concentrations were observed , while the median value for free BETA-hCG was significantly higher ( 201 MoM ) than in control group .
802
The equation of best fit for free BETA-hCG was :
803
In cases with Downs syndrome , the median free beta-hCG MoM was 1.703 for DPC and 1.698 by the Kryptor , which was not significantly different .
804
For free BETA-hCG , a stronger association with preterm delivery was found with early testing ( OR 19 versus 11 ; P value = 031 ) , whereas this difference was not found regarding SGA .
805
An integration of maternal characteristics and first trimester maternal serum biomarkers ( free BETA-hCG and PlGF ) provided a possible screening for early-onset PE .
806
Free beta-hCG MoM was significantly reduced in the IVF fresh embryos subgroup ( 087 MoM ) , but not in the other three subgroups .
807
There were no significant differences between the groups in median DELTANT and maternal free BETA-hCG MoM .
808
After log-transformation there were no significant correlations between mean UtA-PI and NT and between mean UtA-PI and beta-hCG .
809
Modeled detection rates incorporating ADAM12 , free beta-hCG , and NT were 92% at 1% false positive rate ( 88% at 05% ) A combination of all four markers had a detection rate of 96.5% at a false positive rate of 1% ( 95% at 05% ) .
810
Free beta-hCG was 12% higher in women of Afro-Caribbean origin , 9% lower in South Asians , 8% higher in East Asians , 2% higher in nulliparous women , 4% lower in smokers and 9% higher in those conceiving by IVF .
811
Free beta-hCG was also elevated ( median MoM 209 ) with 33% of cases above the 95th centile .
812
The median level of free beta-hCG was higher ( p = 00005 ) , and the median AFP lower in female pregnancies .
813
The serum markers were highly correlated with each other except for BETA-hCG .
814
High BETA-hCG was associated with increased risk for SGA ( OR = 16 , 95% CI 10 , 25 ) and PTD < 37 weeks ( OR = 14 , 95% CI 10 , 19 ) in non-ART pregnancies .
815
There were no significant differences between the IDDM and non-IDDM groups in median-corrected free BETA-hCG ( IDDM 101 MoM , non-IDDM 101 MoM ; p = 0970 ) , or mean delta NT ( IDDM 000 mm , non-IDDM 002 mm ; p = 0412 ) .
816
The difference in log10 MoM free beta-hCG values , between the 11th and 12th gestational week , was significant ( p = 0002 ) .
817
Serum free beta-hCG and alpha-fetoprotein levels may give additional information .
818
Statistical modelling techniques suggest that this would be 58% compared with the expected 67% when combined with maternal age and free beta-hCG .
819
Multivariate regression analysis was used to determine which of the factors amongst maternal weight , racial origin , smoking status , plasma storage time , serum pregnancy-associated plasma protein ( PAPP ) -A and free BETA-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin ( BETA-hCG ) , fetal crown-rump length , nuchal translucency thickness , gender and karyotype were significant predictors of the fetal fraction .
820
For a fixed false-positive rate of 5 % , the respective detection rates of screening for fetal Downs syndrome by maternal age and serum free beta-hCG and PAAP-A , maternal age and fetal NT and by maternal age , fetal NT and maternal serum biochemistry were ( general gynaecologists practices/prenatal centre ) 68.4/69.2 % , 42.1/65.4 % and 78.9/88.5 % , respectively .
821
PLAC4 and beta-HCG mRNA levels are not altered in the maternal circulation of pregnancies with trisomy 21 .
822
At midpregnancy , maternal serum free BETA-hCG levels are significantly higher in pregnancies with fetal homozygous ALPHA-thalassemia-1 disease , signifying that the disease could be a confounder for interpretation free BETA-hCG level in Down syndrome screening program .
823
We now have a long experience of screening with four biochemical markers , alpha-fetoprotein , total hCG , unconjugated estriol and free BETA-hCG during the second trimester .
824
We carried out a multicenter , interventional study in the unselected population of a single health authority in order to assess the performance of first-trimester combined screening , followed by routine second trimester ultrasound examination and/or screening by maternal serum markers ( free beta-hCG and alpha-fetoprotein measurement or total hCG , alpha-fetoprotein , and unconjugated estriol measurement ) when incidentally performed .
825
Free beta-hCG was found to be an independent predictor of gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia .
826
After conversion to MoM in the Downs syndrome group , the DPC free beta-hCG assay showed a MoM-related bias at higher MoM values .
827
Predicted median free BETA-hCG level = 465.332*10 ( ( -0.024*gestational age in days ) ) ; r = 0.881 .
828
In general , for free beta-hCG , this should be by dividing the observed corrected MoM by 2.023 .
829
Conversely , free BETA-hCG was not altered in T1DM pregnancies ( T1DM 099 MoM , non-T1DM 098 MoM ;  p = 014 ) .
830
Using this as part of a contingent-screening model to select an intermediate risk group of women for NT and free beta-hCG at 11-12 weeks would enable the detection of 92% of cases with a 1% false-positive rate at a cost of providing NT and free beta-hCG for 6% of women with 94% of women having completed screening by the 10th week of pregnancy .
831
However , free beta-hCG was significantly higher ( p = 000004 ) in the presence of a female fetus than in the presence of a male fetus .
832
P < 0.000001 ) and free beta-hCG ( p < 0000001 ) in trisomy 18 affected pregnancies when compared with the unaffected samples .
833
There was significant difference between the IVF-H and IVF-P groups in terms of free beta-human chorionic gonadotropin ( beta-hCG ) levels .
834
Free beta-hCG levels were increased in trisomy 21 but decreased in trisomy 18 , whereas alpha-fetoprotein was low in trisomy 21 , 18 and other chromosomal abnormalities .
835
Pregnant women underwent screening in second trimester ( ST2 ) - 14 ( +4 ) -19 ( +3 ) gestational week using serum AFP and free beta-hCG biochemical markers .
836
Those with intermediate risks received second-trimester maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein , free beta-hCG , unconjugated estriol and inhibin-A .
837
Neither abnormally high beta-hCG nor increased NT was associated with an increased risk for PTB .
838
For AFP , levels in citrated plasma and EDTA plasma were also significantly reduced , whereas levels of free beta-hCG were not affected .
839
Free BETA-hCG concentrations differed by greater than 5% in eleven ( 37% ) subjects .
840
An earlier episode of vaginal bleeding is associated with an increase in maternal serum free beta-hCG levels at first-trimester combined screening for Down syndrome .
841
0.96 versus 1.06 MoM , p  =  0.003 ; free BETA-hCG : .
842
The values of free beta-hCG were not statistically different between the two groups .
843
The respective values for beta-hCG MoM were 1.003 for smokers and 1.035 for nonsmokers ( p < 00001 for log ( 10 ) MoM ) which corresponds to a reduction of 3.1% .
844
0.93-1.25 ) for beta-hCG and 1.02 ( 95% CI : .
845
The AFP and free beta-HCG can be useful markers to detect Downs syndrome and fetal abnormality .
846
Similarly , agreement for free beta-hCG was linear with slopes between 0.99 and 1.09 .
847
Low levels of free beta-hCG and increased NT were less consistently associated with adverse outcomes and high levels of free beta-hCG showed limited use as an indicator .
848
Patients with preexisting SLE have increased maternal serum-free beta-hCG levels in the first-trimester .
849
The most specific strategy is based on the integrated test , i.e. , the integration of the quadruple test performed in second trimester ( inhibine dimeric A , total beta-hCG , AFP , and uE3 assay ) to the first trimester combined screening : .
850
Exclusion of patients with spotting from the vaginal bleeding group revealed significantly higher maternal serum free beta-hCG MoM values ( median +/- SD ( log ( 10 ) ) ) compared to patients without bleeding , 1.29 +/- 0.27 versus 0.96 +/- 0.3 ( p = 0.011 ) .
851
In contrast , neither serum BETA-hCG ( MOM 099 , 25th-75th percentiles 046-186 ) nor anandamide ( MOM 107 , 25th-75th percentiles 087-119 ) was elevated or decreased among those who miscarried compared with those with ongoing pregnancies .
852
For women who on examination were at 14 weeks of gestation or greater , or for women presenting as late bookers beyond 14 weeks , screening was performed in the same time frame using only maternal serum free beta-hCG and alpha-fetoprotein .
853
Only free beta-hCG corrected multiples of the median ( MoM ) values were statistically increased in Rh-negative women ( p < 0009 ) .
854
Screening for trisomies 21 , 18 and 13 by maternal age , fetal nuchal translucency , fetal heart rate , free beta-hCG and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A .
855
BPD alone would detect 50% of cases for a 5% false-positive rate or 63% for 10% ; adding AFP increases detection by 2% ; and a combined test with BPD , AFP , and free BETA-hCG detects 58% for 5% or 70% for 10% .
856
For maternal serum free beta-hCG levels are higher by 15% if the fetus is chromosomally normal and by 11% if the fetus has trisomy 21 .
857
The presence of the uterine myomas is connected with the increased maternal serum concentration of the beta-hCG , particularly in the second trimester. 2 .
858
The performance of screening was not improved by the addition of free BETA-hCG or the free BETA-hCG/PlGF ratio .
859
Second trimester levels of free BETA-hCG were not significantly different ( 10575 vs. 09619 , p = 01827 ) , as was AFP ( 09734 vs. 09350 , p = 06576 ) , although UE3 was significantly lower ( 0970 vs. 1110 , p = 00005 ) .
860
Free beta-HCG was the only analyte that resulted in significantly higher values in ART pregnancies ( 112 MoM ) versus controls ( 099 MoM ) .
861
Importantly , we found that pregnancies with an unbalanced translocation had significantly higher free BETA-hCG multiple of the median ( MoM ) and larger nuchal translucency thickness than those with normal karyotype or balanced translocations .
862
A total of 13,477 serum samples were tested for AFP and 11,659 for free beta-hCG .
863
The median plasma AEA level in non-viable pregnancies ( 148 nM ; n = 20 ) was higher than in viable pregnancies ( 121 nM ; n = 25 ; P = 0013 ) , as were progesterone and beta-hCG levels ( 410 versus 515 ng/mL ; P = 0052 for P4 and 28,650 versus 6,560 mIU/L ; P = 0144 for beta-hCG , respectively , but were not statistically significant ) .